World War Ii Ebooks Catalog
People went kind of crazy after World War II. Huge cars with tailfins, Twinkies, and big front lawns consumed the affections of modern Americans. One of the casualties was homegrown food, a common part of life before then. Times have changed again, and it's time to get back to growing our own groceries. Feeding your family is the very best use of your land and not as difficult as you may think.
The Scottish economist Adam Smith, who lived from 1723 to 1790, anticipated some of the fundamentals of complexity theory when he wrote his Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. It is pleasing to note that the genius of Adam Smith was recognised during his lifetime and that, at a large public dinner, the Prime Minister, William Pitt, invited him to be seated first, declaring We are all your scholars . It was Adam Smith's concept of self-organisation that led to the concept of free trade. This concept became popular in the latter half of the nineteenth century, but it was strangled by protectionism after World War I. It is now being resuscitated at long last.
During the Second World War, the U.S. Army established large hydroponic gardens on several islands in the western Pacific to supply fresh vegetables to troops operating in that area (Eastwood, 1947). Since the 1980s, the hydroponic technique has become of considerable commercial value for vegetable (Elliott, 1989) and flower (Fynn and Endres, 1994) production, and as of 1995 there are over 60,000 acres of greenhouse vegetables being grown hydroponically throughout the world, an acreage that is expected to continue to increase (Jensen, 1995). In a 2004 Hydroponic Merchants Association publication (see page v), they report over 55,000 acres of hydroponic greenhouse vegetable production worldwide, with about 1,000 acres in the United States, 2,100 acres in Canada, and 2,700 acres in Mexico. In these three countries, 68 of the production is in tomato, 15 in cucumber and 17 in pepper.
We must recognise also that the efficiency and safety of crop protection chemicals has been improving steadily. Gone are the days when we treated our crops with compounds of lead, mercury, arsenic, and cyanide. After World War II, DDT became available and it had to be applied to crops at a rate of 2kg ha. Later, the much less hazardous synthetic pyrethroids were developed, and these need be used at only one twentieth of the DDT rate, namely at 0.1kg ha. A relatively new insecticide, aldicarb, need be applied at a rate of only 0.05kg ha. In other words, it is forty times more effective than DDT, and it has less hazardous side-effects. Much as we may dislike the use of crop protection chemicals, we must recognise this general trend of improvement, which is likely to continue.
An intestinal diseases of humans caused by the bacterium Vibrio chlorae. This disease, and typhoid, caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhi, are spread by houseflies, and the Allied forces dusted the whole of Naples with DDT during World War II, in order to prevent major epidemics of insect-borne diseases, including malaria. DDT-resistant houseflies soon appeared and this was the first known example of the breakdown of an unstable, synthetic pesticide to new strains of the pests. It was this failure of DDT that initiated the 'boom and bust cycle' of pesticide production. Chromosome
Many famous potato cultivars were produced during this period and they are still being cultivated with expensive fungicidal protection. Their blight susceptibility was first revealed during World War I, when Germany was critically short of copper, which was essential for the manufacture of armaments. Germany was unable to spray her potato crops, and food shortages were a major factor leading to her defeat. These shortages were aggravated by the shortage of nitrogenous fertilisers caused by the demand for explosives.
Potatoes were introduced to the Highlands of Kenya in 1900 and, being free of blight, they were a very productive and popular crop for the next forty years. However, blight was accidentally introduced during World War II, and it proved devastating. Potato production all but ceased, particularly among subsistence farmers, who had neither the cash nor the expertise for fungicidal spraying. One old Dutch cultivar, known locally as Dutch Robijn (Robijn rhymes with 'no pain') had sufficient horizontal resistance to produce a reasonable yield without spraying, and it is still being cultivated. The temperate viruses of potato lack epidemiological competence in the highlands of equatorial Kenya, and the only important tuber-borne disease is bacterial blight, caused by Pseudomonas solanacearum. A Scottish cultivar, bred for vertical resistance by William Black, also proved to have a reasonably high level of horizontal resistance to blight. This was named Roslyn Eburu in Kenya, where it is...
During the Second World War, Allied soldiers ate hydroponic vegetables grown on their air and naval bases in the South Pacific. Today, hydroponic installations help feed millions of people they may be found flourishing in the deserts of Israel, Lebanon and Kuwait, on the islands of Ceylon, the Philippines and the Canaries, on the rooftops of Calcutta and in the parched villages of West Bengal.
During World War I, Germany was critically short of many commodities but, in particular, copper was scarce. Copper was needed for making Bordeaux mixture. But it was also needed for making brass shell cases for the rifles and field guns. Because of the war, the military had priority, and the potato crops went unsprayed. The winter of 1917 was known as the 'turnip winter'. Germany lost the war mainly because of food shortages, and several countries decided that potato blight had military significance.
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