Order Diptera Flies and Maggots

The flies are notable in possessing only a single pair of wings. The wings are membranous. The second pair is reduced to a pair of small-knobbed structures, called halteres, that function to provide balance. Flies tend to be small and fragile. The mouthparts are variable, but usually function to sponge up liquids or they are needle-like and are used to pierce and suck-up liquids. The antennae are variable. They undergo complete metamorphosis, displaying egg, larval, and pupal stages in addition...

Adelphocoris superbus Uhler Hemiptera Miridae

Rapid plant bug occurs in the United States and Canada principally east of the Great Plains. In western North America it is replaced by superb plant bug, but the two species overlap in the Rocky Mountain region and Great Plains. Both species are native, and there is some thought that they are variants of the same species (Slater and Baranowski, 1978). Host Plants. These insects are known principally as pests of alfalfa and sweet clover, where they can attain high levels of...

Papaipema nebris Guene Lepidoptera Noctuidae

This native insect occurs throughout the eastern United States and southern Canada east of the Rocky Mountains. It rarely is abundant in the southern states and along the western margin of its distribution, occurring as a pest principally in the midwestern states. There are nearly 50 species of Papaipema found in northeast and northcentral United States and adjacent Canada. Although, P. nebris is the dominant pest, on occasion related species such as P. cataphracta (Grote), the...

Pests Feeding on Blossoms or Fruits

Armyworms and cutworms Beet, yellowstriped and western yellowstriped armyworm corn ear-worm variegated cutworm Borers Corn earworm, tobacco budworm, tomato pinworm Flies Small fruit Maggots Pepper Other bugs Leaffooted Other caterpillars Tobacco and tomato hornworm Sap beetles Dusky Scarab beetles Green June Stink bugs Brown, consperse, green, Say, southern Other Pests Occasionally Found on Tomato and Related Plants Ant Red imported fire Aphids Bean root, rice root, melon Armyworms and cutworms...

J I

Adult female pea aphid, winged form. and pods. Aphids feeding on foliage disrupt the flow of plant photosynthates to the plant roots. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria inhabiting the nodules on roots of legumes are affected by availability of phytosynthates. Thus, aphid feeding decreases nitrogen fixation and plant growth. Both young and mature plants are affected (Sirur and Barlow, 1984). Damage may not be apparent if aphid populations are low, but at high densities foliage may turn brown, pods are...

Western Yellowstriped Armyworm Spodoptera praefica Grote Lepidoptera Noctuidae

Yellowstriped armyworm, Spodoptera ornithogalli Guen e , is common in the eastern United States as far west as the Rocky Mountains, and occurs in southern Canada. However, it also is reported from southwestern states, including California. The distribution of this native insect includes Mexico, Central and South America, and many Caribbean islands. As a pest, however, its occurrence is limited principally to the southeastern states. Western yellow-striped armyworm, Spodoptera...

Melanchra picta Harris Lepidoptera Noctuidae

This native insect is found in southern Canada and the northern United States from the Atlantic to the Pacific Coast. Nowhere is it considered to be a major pest, yet it can be a fairly regular nuisance, and a significant component of the defoliator pest complex of several crops. Host Plants. Zebra caterpillar feeds on several vegetable plants, and has been recorded as a pest of asparagus, bean, beet, broccoli, cabbage, celery, corn, lettuce, parsnip, pea, potato, rutabaga,...

Xestia adela Franclemont Xestia dolosa Franclemont Lepidoptera Noctuidae

Spotted Cutworms

These species have long been known as Xestia Amathes c-nigrum Linnaeus , a Eurasian species. However, they now have been differentiated into two other species Xestia adela and Xestia dolosa Fran-clemont, 1980 . Xestia adela occurs throughout Canada and the United States, including Alaska, whereas X. dolosa occurs only in the eastern United States and Canada west to about North Dakota. They remain difficult to differentiate and are best treated together. Hudson 1982 suggested that...

Order Hymenoptera Ants Bees Sawflies and Wasps

The order Hymenoptera is diverse in appearance and biology. Hymenopterans bear two pairs of mem branous wings. Most have chewing mouthparts. Often a significant constriction occurs between the thorax and abdomen, producing a thread-like waist. A distinct ovipositor is present in many females. The order Hymenoptera contains many social insects such as ants and bees, which live in colonies, but also many solitary species. Some hymenopterans such as cicada killer wasps attain a large size,...

Pest Management Practices

There are numerous types of practices that can be implemented to protect a crop from pests, or to eliminate pests that have invaded. These practices can be organized into four broad categories biological control, cultural manipulations, physical manipulations, and insecticides. They differ greatly in effectiveness, ease of implementation, cost of implementation, time interval required before becoming effective, and relia bility. No single practice is effective for all pest problems, though...

Melanoplus propinquus Scudder Orthoptera Acrididae

The redlegged grasshopper, Melanoplus femurrubrum De Geer , is known from nearly all of the United States and southern Canada, and its distribution also extends south through most of Mexico. In parts of the southeast, on the coastal plain from eastern North Carolina to southern Mississippi and Louisiana, and including all of Florida, it is replaced by a very similar form, M. propinquus Scudder, which appears to be a separate species Dakin, 1985 . These are native insects. Host...

What Are the Major Vegetable Crops

Numerous types of vegetables are available to the people of the United States and Canada. Availability changed radically during the 20th century. Early in that century a great deal of vegetable production was local, people ate what was seasonally available, and in the winter months they ate only what stored well in root cellars or could be preserved through canning. With the improvement in transportation in the middle of the century, southern vegetable production areas could keep northern...

Lepidoptera Papilionidae

Black Swallowtail Butterfly

Black swallowtail, also known as American swallowtail, is found in southern Canada and the eastern United States as far west as the Rocky Mountains. Its range also extends south into Mexico and northern South America. Anise swallowtail, also known as western swallowtail, inhabits southwestern Canada and the western United States from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific coast. The ranges of these native species overlap in the Rocky Mountain region. Host Plants. Larvae of these...

Depressaria pastinacella Duponchel Lepidoptera Oecophoridae

Parsnip webworm was originally known from Europe, and apparently was introduced to North America some time before 1869. Its distribution now includes southern Canada from Nova Scotia to British Columbia, and the northern United States south to Maryland and Arizona. Host Plants. In addition to feeding on parsnip, this insect feeds on several umbelliferous weeds, including cow parsnip, Heracleum lanatum and angelica, Angelica spp. Records of wild carrot, Daucus carota, are doubtful....

Hyles lineata Fabricius Lepidoptera Sphingidae

This native insect is probably the most widely distributed sphingid moth in North America. It is found throughout the United States and southern Canada, and its range extends south into Central America and the Caribbean. Host Plants. This insect reportedly has a wide host range, but feeds principally on weeds. Its presence among garden plants often results in the assumption that it is developing at the expense of crops when it is actually grazing on an understory of competing...

Pontia protodice Boisduval and LeConte Lepidoptera Pieridae

Pontia Protodice

Southern cabbageworm, also known as the checkered white, is found throughout the United States and south into Mexico. It is native to North America. As its common name suggests, it is principally a southern insect, and occurs in the North only sporadically. It is rare in the New England states and southern Canada. Host Plants. Southern cabbageworm attacks a variety of cultivated crucifers, but is much less abundant than imported cabbageworm, Pieris rapae Linnaeus . Apparently...

Forfcula auricularia Linnaeus Dermaptera Forficulidae

Dermaptera Forficulidae

European earwig was first observed in North America at Seattle, Washington in 1907. It spread quickly and was reported from Oregon in 1909, British Columbia in 1919, and California in 1923. It reached Rhode Island in 1911, New York in 1912, and most other provinces and northern states in the 1930s and 1940s. Now it occurs south to North Carolina, Arizona and southern California, but owing to its preference for temperate climates it is unlikely to become abundant in the...

Order Homoptera Aphids Plant and Leafhoppers Psyllids and Whiteflies

The order Homoptera consists of a diverse assemblage of insects that are difficult to characterize, be cause superficially they are so different in general appearance. They are closely related to Hemiptera, and sometimes treated as members of that order. The mouthparts of Homoptera are the piercing-sucking type, but instead of arising at the front of the head as in the Hemiptera, they arise basally, at the back of the head. Sometimes, the mouthparts appear to originate between the base of the...

Circulifer tenellus Baker Homoptera Cicadellidae

Dalbulus Maidis Virus

Beet leafhopper originated in the Mediterranean region and apparently was introduced to the western hemisphere by Spanish explorers. It spread throughout Central and South America, the Caribbean area, and to Hawaii and Australia. In North America the beet leafhopper is common and is damaging throughout the western United States from southwest Texas to Washington. It also occurs in low numbers in the eastern states where it is not considered to be a pest. Beet leafhopper can remain...

Sterictiphora cellularis Say Hymenoptera Argidae

Sawfly Adult Male

This native species occurs throughout the eastern United States, occurring as far west as eastern Nebraska and Texas. It has been known as a serious pest only in the Chesapeake Bay region, specifically Maryland, Virginia and North Carolina, and near the mouth of the Mississippi River, in Louisiana and Mississippi. Host Plants. Sweetpotato sawfly is known only from Ipomoea spp., and rarely has been collected from anything other than sweet potato. Natural Enemies. A larval...

Gratiana pallidula Boheman Coleoptera Chrysomelidae

The eggplant tortoise beetle is found widely in the United States, from Maryland to Florida in the east, and west to California. A native species, eggplant tortoise beetle is most common in southern states, and is not known as damaging in northern states and Canada. A strikingly similar insect, G. lutescens Boheman , is common in South America and interbreeds successfully with eggplant flea beetle, so the status of these species is uncertain Siebert, 1975 . Host Plants. This...

Noninsect Invertebrate Pests

Other classes of animals resemble insects, or inflict similar damage to vegetable crops, four basic groups of such pests 1. Class Acari phylum Arthropoda Mites. These animals are smaller than most insects, and usually bear eight legs. 2. Class Collembola Springtails, and class Sym-phyla Symphylans both phylum Arthropoda . These small soil-dwelling animals have been considered to be insects in the past and share many morphological characteristics with insects. 3. Class Isopoda Pillbugs and...

Family Sphingidae Hornworms and

Sweetpotato Hornworm, Agrius cingulatus Tobacco Hornworm, Manduca sexta Linnaeus and Tomato Hornworm, Manduca quinquemaculata Haworth 503 Whitelined Sphinx, Hyles lineata Fabricius 506 Family Tortricidae Leafroller Moths 507 Pea Moth, Cydia nigricana Fabricius 507 Order Orthoptera Grasshoppers and Crickets Family Acrididae Grasshoppers 511 Differential Grasshopper, Melanoplus differentialis Thomas Eastern Lubber Grasshopper, Romalea microptera Beauvois Migratory Grasshopper, Melanoplus...

Diaprepes abbreviatus Linnaeus Coleoptera Curculionidae

Diaprepes abbreviatus is found widely in the Caribbean Islands, and was discovered in Florida in 1964. It has since then spread slowly, but occurs throughout southern and central Florida. It is thought to have been introduced with ornamental plants shipped to Florida from Puerto Rico, and there fore has the potential to spread again by this means, particularly to other warm weather regions such as southern Texas and California. In Puerto Rico these pests are known as vaquitas....

Zonosemata electa Say Diptera Tephritidae

This native pest occurs throughout the eastern United States west to Texas and Kansas. However, it is most abundant along the east coast, from Massachusetts to South Carolina. In Canada its distribution apparently is limited to southern Ontario. Host Plants. Pepper maggot develops successfully only in plants in the family Solanaceae. The vegetable crops injured are pepper and eggplant. Tomato has been reported to be a host, but this is rare. Solanac-eous weeds that sometimes...

Coleoptera Chrysomelidae

Eggplant flea beetle is widely distributed in the United States. It is found from the east coast to the west coast except in northern areas. It is found only as far north as New Jersey, Illinois, Nebraska, and Utah. This native species is not known as a pest in Canada. Host Plants. Eggplant flea beetle feeds on solanac-eous plants such as eggplant and potato. The host range of eggplant flea beetle is poorly known, but likely is equivalent to that of potato flea beetle, Epitrix...

Darksided Cutworm Euxoa messoria Harris Lepidoptera Noctuidae

Darksided cutworm, a native species, is found throughout most of Canada and the northern United States. Although it occurs as far south as South Carolina, Oklahoma, and southern California, it is a pest only in northern climates. Host Plants. This species has been reported to feed on numerous plants including such vegetables as bean, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, Chinese cabbage, corn, cucumber, onion, pea, pepper, potato, radish, rutabaga, sweet potato,...

Pemphigus populivenae Fitch Homoptera Aphididae

Pemphigus Populi Venae Betae

There has been considerable disagreement over the status of the Pemphigus species associated with crops in the plant family Chenopodia-ceae. Pemphigus betae Doane and P. populivenae Fitch are the names used most commonly in conjunction with this pest, though only one species with different forms or biotypes may be involved. Sugarbeet root aphid is native, and found principally in the range occupied by narrow-leaved poplar, Populus angustifo-lia the principal overwintering host in...

Listronotus texanus Stockton Coleoptera Curculionidae

Carrot weevil is native to North America, and has been known as a pest since the mid-1800s. It is found throughout the United States, though it is a more serious pest in northern states. It is fairly widespread in Canada and continues to increase in geographic range and severity of damage. However, it is a serious pest principally in Ontario and Quebec. Texas carrot weevil is also a native insect, though it likely occurs in Mexico as well. Only in recent years has it become a...

Loxagrotis albicosta Smith Lepidoptera Noctuidae

This native cutworm occurs in the Rocky Mountain and western Great Plains regions of the United States and Canada, extending east to Nebraska, Oklahoma, and Texas. Its range has expanded, apparently following adoption of corn as a food plant in the 1950s, and likely will continue to spread in the Great Plains. Western bean cutworm appears to be absent from the Pacific Coast States, but is known from Mexico. Host Plants. Originally known as a minor pest of bean, and perhaps of...

Hemiptera Pentatomidae

This native insect is found throughout the United States and southern Canada, and extends south into Mexico. Two subspecies are recognized by some authors E. servus servus Say occurs in the southern states, including Virginia, southern Illinois, Texas, Arizona, and southern California E. servus euschistoides Vollenhoven occurs in the northern portions of the continent. They meet in a broad band of intergradation from Maryland to Kansas. E. servus is the most abundant member of the...

Chaetocnema denticulata Illiger Coleoptera Chrysomelidae

Chaetocnema Denticulata

Corn flea beetle and toothed flea beetle are found primarily in the northeastern and midwestern United States, but their range extends as far west as the Rocky Mountains. The northern limit of these native species seems to be Massachusetts, New York, and southern Ontario. Survival is affected by winter weather, and damage resulting from flea beetle feeding is noticed most commonly following mild winters. Host Plants. The adults and larvae of corn flea beetle and toothed flea...

Diabrotica barberi Smith and Lawrence Coleoptera Chrysomelidae

Northern corn rootworm is a native species, and was irst discovered attacking corn in Colorado. It has since spread eastward, principally to the corn belt in the midwestern states. Range expansion was caused primarily by a change in crop production practices culture of corn continuously in the same fields. In the United States, northern corn rootworm occurs in the Great Plains region from North Dakota to Oklahoma, and east to the Atlantic Ocean. As its common name suggests, this...

Armyworms and cutworms Southern army

Worm granulate cutworm Leaf beetles Banded, spotted, striped, and western striped cucumber western corn rootworm Other beetles Squash Other caterpillars Melonworm Pests With Piercing-Sucking Mouthparts Aphids Green peach, melon Leafhoppers Potato western potato Mite Broad twospotted spider Other bugs Leaffooted squash and horned squash Whiteflies Silverleaf, sweet potato, greenhouse Other Pests Occasionally Found on Squash and Ants Red imported fire Aphids Bean, buckthorn, potato, rice root...

Chalcodermus aeneus Boheman Coleoptera Curculionidae

Chalcodermus Aeneus Larvae

This insect apparently is native to North America. It is restricted primarily to the southeastern states, from Virginia to Florida in the East, and west to Texas and Oklahoma. Occasionally it is reported in more northern states, but causes no damage there. It also is reported to occur in Central and South America. Host Plants. Cowpea curculio feeds principally on legumes, but other plants are sometimes consumed. Cowpea, snap bean, lima bean, and pea are the vegetables injured, but...

Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominalis Sasaki Homoptera Aphididae

Rice root aphid may be of Asian origin, though it now has nearly world-wide distribution in tropical and subtropical areas, and to a lesser extent in temperate countries. It occurs widely in the United States, but is rarely a pest, and is injurious only in warmer climates such as California, Texas, and the southeastern states. It is not known to occur naturally in Canada, though it has been imported on plant products. Host Plants. The primary, or overwintering, host is Prunus spp....

Acknowledgments

Much of the entomological literature published in the past 125 years that pertains to North American vegetable pests was reviewed during preparation of this Handbook. This was a complex task, and undoubtedly there are numerous oversights and errors in interpretation. I take full responsibility for such errors and hope that readers will be so kind to point them out so that one day these may be corrected. I have attempted to correct as many mistakes as possible by obtaining reviews from...

Tipula paludosa Meigen Diptera Tipulidae

Diptera Caudal Spiracles

The origin of European crane fly or leatherjacket is northern Europe, where it occurs from Finland to Great Britain. It was first found in North America in Labrador during 1952, followed by Nova Scotia in 1954, and British Columbia in 1965. The eastern populations have not expanded greatly, but on the west coast the population quickly spread south and east from Vancouver into western Washington and northwestern Oregon. Host Plants. Larvae feed on numerous plants, though they are...

Phyllotreta armoraciae Koch Coleoptera Chrysomelidae

Psylliodes Spp Larvae

Horseradish flea beetle is an introduced species, probably from Europe. It was first found in North America in 1893 in the vicinity of Chicago, Illinois. It now is widely distributed in the northern United States and southern Canada, but principally east of the Rocky Mountains. It also has been collected from Oregon and Idaho, but in these locations it seems not to be a serious pest. Host Plants. The adults have been collected from several cruciferous plants, but damage by adults...

Megalographa biloba Stephens Lepidoptera Noctuidae

Cabbage Looper

This native insect is found throughout North and South America, including Hawaii. It is relatively infrequent, however, in western Canada and the northwestern United States. Apparently it cannot overwinter in northern latitudes and reinvades the northern United States and southern Canada each summer. Host Plants. Bilobed looper is reported to feed on several families of plants, but only a few crops are affected. Among vegetables crops eaten are bean, cabbage, and lettuce. Other...

Euxoa auxiliaris Grote Lepidoptera Noctidae

Millermoths

This native insect is abundant in the Great Plains and Rocky Mountain regions in the United States and Canada. It has been recorded from all states west of the Mississippi River, and as far east in Canada as Ontario, but it attains high densities only in semiarid areas. Host Plants. Army cutworm has been reported to feed on numerous plants. It is known principally as a pest of small grains, perhaps because these crops dominate the landscape where army cutworm occurs. Among...

Colaspis brunnea Fabricius Coleoptera Chrysomelidae

Pupa Colaspis Brunnea

This native insect is found widely in North America, east of the Rocky Mountains, though it is relatively infrequent in the western Great Plains. It also occurs spradically in the western states, as it also is reported from Arizona and Oregon. Host Plants. The grape colaspis is known to feed on numerous plants, in both the larval and adult stage, though rarely does it cause much damage. The preferred hosts seem to be legumes, but it can be quite common in legume-grass mixtures....

Euschistus conspersus Uhler Hemiptera Pentatomidae

Consperse stink bug occurs in western North America from British Columbia and Idaho south to California and Nevada. It is a native species. Host Plants. Consperse stink bug damages vegetable and fruit crops. Known principally as pest of tomato, it also feeds on apple, apricot, blackberry, fig, loganberry, peach, pear, plum, and raspberry. It also is found occasionally in alfalfa, barley, cotton, sorghum, and sugarbeet. Among the numerous weeds known to support consperse stink bug...

Glassy Cutworm Apamea devastator Brace Lepidoptera Noctuidae

This native species occurs throughout the United States and southern Canada except for the southeastern states. Its range also includes South America. Host Plants. Glassy cutworm is principally a grass-feeding species, and crop damage is most likely done when crops follow sod or are planted into fields heavily infested with grassy weeds. In Oregon, Kamm 1990 reported that bentgrass, Agrostis tenus ryegrass, Lolium perenne and wild oats, Avena fatua were attractive to ovipositing...

Capitophorus elaeagni del Guercio Homoptera Aphididae

This species is found in temperate regions throughout the world, but probably is of European origin. It is the most common and damaging aphid affecting artichoke in California. Host Plants. The summer hosts of this aphid are artichoke and Cirsium and Carduus thistles. The winter hosts are Elaeagnus spp. trees and shrubs, principally Russian olive, E. angustifolia. Natural Enemies. Natural enemies are not well known, but Lange 1941 reported that lady beetles Coleoptera...

Phyllotreta albionica LeConte Coleoptera Chrysomelidae

This native flea beetle is widely distributed in the western United States and Canada. It is found only as far east as Saskatchewan, Colorado, and New Mexico. Host Plants. Cabbage flea beetle feeds principally on cruciferous plants. Vegetable crops attacked by this beetle include broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, radish, rutabaga and turnip, but radish and turnip are most preferred. It also attacks alfalfa, sugarbeet, and tomato, but these events are unusual,...

Armyworms and cutworms Beet armyworm Other caterpillars Saltmarsh

Pests with Piercing-Sucking Mouthparts Thrips Onion, tobacco, western flower Other Pests Occasionally Found on Onion and Related Plants Armyworms and cutworms Armyworm, fall, yellow-striped, and western yellowstriped armyworm army, black, clover, darksided, dingy, granulate, pale western, redbacked, spotted, and variegated cutworm Blister beetles Black, immaculate Borers Potato stem Crickets Shortwinged, southern and tawny mole Mormon Grasshoppers Differential, eastern lubber, migratory,...

What Is a Pest

A pest is not a biological phenomenon it is an anthropomorphic designation. For example, we consider termites as beneficial organisms when they live in forests, converting dead trees into soil organic matter. The same insects are pests when they feed on wood-associated human structures. In both cases, the termite behavior is the same, but in one case we place no value on the wood being consumed, and in the other we assign high economic value. Sometimes the mere presence of insects causes...

Hypena scabra Fabricius Lepidoptera Noctuidae

This native species is found widely in eastern North America. It is recorded from all states east of the Great Plains, and there are occasional records from the Rocky Mountain region. As a pest, however, it is best known from the soybean-growing areas of the midwest and southeast where it has an abundance of suitable host material. In Canada, green cloverworm is known from southern Ontario, but it rarely causes serious damage. Host Plants. Larvae of green cloverworm develop...

Spodoptera eridania Cramer Ledidoptera Noctuidae

This insect is native to the Americas, occurring widely in North, Central and South America and the Caribbean. In the United States, southern armyworm is found principally in the southeastern states. Although its range extends west to Kansas, New Mexico, and California, this species is of little consequence in western states. Host Plants. Southern armyworm has a very broad host range. Some of the vegetables injured are beet, cabbage, carrot, collards, cowpea, eggplant, okra,...

Agrotis orthogonia Morrison Lepidoptera Noctuidae

This native species is found in semiarid regions of the western United States and Canada. Its distribution is largely restricted to the western edge of the Great Plains and eastern portions of the Rocky Mountains, including southern Alberta and Saskatchewan, most of Montana, Wyoming, Colorado and Utah, and northern New Mexico. It also occurs in portions of adjoining states, and has been particularly troublesome in western Kansas. Host Plants. Larvae generally feed on grasses and...

Cotinis nitida Linnaeus Coleoptera Scarabaeidae

Cotinis Nitida

Green June beetle is found principally in the southeastern states. It occurs north to southern Connecticut and southern Illinois, and west to Kansas and Texas. This insect is native to North America. Host Plants. This insect is well known for the feeding habits of the adult stage because the injury of this stage is very visible. The adults feed commonly on ripening fruits such as apricot, apple, blackberry, fig, grape, nectarine, pear, plum, prune, quince, raspberry, and...

Garden Fleahopper Halticus Bractatus Say Hemiptera Miridae

Garden fleahopper is a native insect occurring widely in the eastern United States and Canada. It is known to occur as far west as the Rocky Mountain region, but it is relatively uncommon in the Great Plains. Its distribution extends southward through Central and South America to Argentina. Host Plants. This fleahopper has a known host range that exceeds 40 different plants, but leguminous crops are most frequently damaged. Vegetable crops that host garden fleahopper include bean,...

Homoptera Aphididae

The bean aphid, which is probably a complex of closely related species, apparently is native to Europe, but it has been spread to most temperate areas of the world except for Australia and New Zealand. Although it occurs in tropical areas of Africa, it is not a very serious pest in warm environments. Bean aphid occurs throughout the United States and southernmost Canada. See color figures 19 and 151. Host Plants. This aphid feeds on a wide range of hosts, though it seems to favor...

Helicoverpa zea Boddie Lepidoptera Noctuidae

Helicoverpa Zea Spinule

Corn earworm is found throughout North America except for northern Canada and Alaska. It tends to be less abundant west of the Rocky Mountains, and is infrequently a pest in Canada's Prairie Provinces. It also occurs in Hawaii and the Caribbean islands. Corn earworm is common in South America, persisting to a southern latitude of about 40 . Its origin is uncertain, but likely is native to North America. In the eastern United States, corn earworm does not normally overwinter...

Cydia nigricana Fabricius Lepidoptera Tortricidae

Cydia Nigricana

Pea moth is native to Europe, and was first observed in North America in 1893 at Toronto, Canada. Probably, the insect had been in residence for a number of years before attracting attention. It quickly spread across the northern United States, causing great damage in the Great Lakes region in the early 1920s, and reached Washington in 1926. It inflicted considerable damage in both Washington and British Columbia in 1933. Now found throughout the northern United States and...

Lygus elisus Van Duzee Hemiptera Miridae

Picture Lygus Damage Celery

These insects are native to North America. Both in appearance and biology, these species are quite similar, and have long been plagued with taxonomic problems. Therefore, they are best considered as a group. Tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris Palisot de Beauvois is widely distributed and is considered damaging wherever it occurs. It is found throughout the United States, including Alaska. In Canada, it is found from Newfoundland to British Columbia, including the Yukon. Western...

Brachycorynella asparagi Mordvilko Homoptera Aphididae

This species was first observed in North America in 1969, in New York. Presumably it had been introduced accidentally from Eurasia, where it is found widely in eastern countries and along the Mediterranean. It dispersed or was dispersed quickly, attaining North Carolina in 1973, British Columbia in 1975, Missouri and Washington in 1979, Alabama, Georgia, Oklahoma and Idaho in 1981, and California in 1984. Although it is abundant across the northern portions of North America, and...

Order Thysanoptera Thrips

These very small insects usually measure only 12 mm long. They have two pairs of wings, consisting largely of fringe hairs. The antennae are medium in length and thread-like. The mouthparts pierce plant tissue and remove plant sap, though the mouthparts are often described as rasping rather than piercing-sucking. These insects exhibit a form of incomplete development in which the first two instars feed actively, but are inactive. Tarsal claws usually are not present. The nymphal instars...

Order Hemiptera Heteroptera Bugs

The Hemiptera are often called the true bugs to differentiate them from other orders of insects that are casually termed bugs. The spelling of insect families in the order Hemiptera consists of two words, with bugs a separate word e.g., burrower bugs and ambush bugs , whereas insects from other orders combine bugs into a single word e.g., lightningbugs which are beetles, and lovebugs which are flies . The Hemiptera are distinguished from other groups of four-winged insects by the presence of...

Anasa armigera Say Hemiptera Coreidae

Squash Bug Insecticide

The squash bug, Anasa tristis, is found throughout the United States, and is known as a pest wherever it occurs. In Canada, it frequently is a pest in southern Ontario and Quebec and in southwestern British Columbia. Squash bug also occurs in most of Central America. The horned squash bug, A. armigera, has a more restricted distribution, occurring throughout the eastern United States west to Iowa and Texas, and is also known from Trinidad. Two other crop-feeding species of Anasa,...

Order Coleoptera Beetles

Coleoptera is the largest order of insects, containing about 40 of the known species in the class Insecta. The most distinctive feature is the structure of the wings. The front pair of wings, called elytra, are normally thickened and hard, providing protection for the thinner, membranous hind pair of wings. The hind wings are longer than the front wings and fold beneath the front wings when the insect is not in flight. Beetles have chewing mouthparts, with well-developed mandibles. The...

Family Gryllotalpidae Mole Crickets

Shortwinged Mole Cricket, Scapteriscus abbreviatus Scudder, Southern Mole Cricket, Scapteriscus borellii Giglio Tos and Tawny Mole Cricket, Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder 528 turkestani Ugarov and Nikolski and Tumid Spider Mite, Tetranychus tumidus Banks 556 Tomato Russet Mite, Aculops lycopersici Class Collembola Springtails 560 Garden Springtail, Bourletiella hortensis Fitch 560 Class Diplopoda Millipedes 562 Garden Millipede, Oxidus gracilis Koch 562 Class Isopoda Pillbugs and Sowbugs 565...

Pests Feeding Externally on Leaves or Upper Stems

Armyworms and cutworms Beet, fall, southern, yellowstriped and western yellowstriped army- worm tobacco budworm corn earworm variegated cutworm Flea beetles Eggplant, potato, tuber, western potato, tobacco, southern tobacco Leaf beetles Colorado potato Loopers Alfalfa, cabbage Other caterpillars Tobacco and tomato horn- worm saltmarsh Tortoise beetles Eggplant Weevils Vegetable whitefringed beetle Pests with Piercing-Sucking Mouthparts Aphids Buckthorn, foxglove, green peach, Leafhoppers Aster,...

Paratrioza cockerelli Sulc Homoptera Psyllidae

Paratrioza Cockerelli

This native insect pest occurs principally in the Rocky Mountain region of North America, from Arizona and New Mexico north to Alberta and Saskatchewan. However, it occasionally has been reported as far west as California and British Columbia and as far east as Minnesota and Quebec. Potato psyllid also occurs in Mexico. It overwinters only in the southernmost United States and in Mexico, so occurrence in northern regions is largely a function of wind-borne dispersal. Host Plants....

Order Lepidoptera Moths Butterflies and Caterpillars

This large group contains many destructive pests. The most important diagnostic character is the presence of flattened scales on the wings and often on the other parts of the adult's body. Adult lepidopter-ans have four wings, and are often rather heavy-bodied, and bear medium-sized to long antennae. The antennae vary in appearance in butterflies the tip is usually expanded to form a knob, whereas in moths the apical expansion is lacking. Adults also have long, tubular mouthparts that uncoil to...

Order Orthoptera Grasshoppers and Crickets

The order Orthoptera consists principally of grasshoppers, crickets, and katydids. Most are medium 2050 mm body length but some are large up to 80 mm in size. They tend to be relatively thin and elongate in body form, and possess long legs, particularly the hind legs. Most species have two pairs of wings however, some have abbreviated wings and a few are wingless. The front wings are narrow and slightly thickened, but not very hard. They serve mostly to protect the hind wings from damage rather...

Plutella xylostella Linnaeus Lepidoptera Plutellidae

Frugiperda

Diamondback moth is probably of European origin but has become rather cosmopolitan, and is now found throughout the Americas and in Europe, Southeast Asia, Australia, and New Zealand. It was first observed in North America in 1854, in Illinois, but spread quickly. It was found in Massachusetts and Maryland by 1870, had spread to Florida and the Rocky Mountains by 1883, and was reported from British Columbia by 1905. In North America, dia- mondback moth is now recorded everywhere...

Hyadaphis foeniculi Passerini Homoptera Aphididae

Coriander aphid is found in the Mediterranean regions of Europe and Africa and east to central and southern Asia. It was first found in North America in 1997, in Florida. Honeysuckle aphid has a similar Eurasian origin, but is now cosmopolitan, having invaded North and South America, Australia, New Zealand, and southern Africa. It invaded North America in 1900s or earlier, as it was known from California and Connecticut before 1910. Honeysuckle aphid is suspected of being a...

Euborellia annulipes Lucas Dermaptera Carcinophoridae

First found in the United States in 1884, ringlegged earwig now is widespread in southern states. It is also known from many northern states, and the southernmost portions of British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec in Canada. Redlegged earwig occurs in Hawaii and has been transported to most other areas of the world, including both tropical and temperate climates. It likely is of European origin. Host Plants. Ringlegged earwig is omnivorous in its feeding habits, taking both plant...

Melanoplus sanguinipes Fabricius Orthoptera Acrididae

Agamermis Decaudata

This native grasshopper is extremely adaptable. It is found in every state in the continental United States, and in every province in Canada. It is absent from only the northernmost, coldest regions of Canada, and from southern Florida and Texas. Host Plants. This species feeds on a wide range of food plants, and occurs in numerous habitats. Relative to the other common crop-feeding Melanoplus spp., migratory grasshopper is more tolerant of arid, short-grass environments. It tends...

Epicauta vittata Fabricius Coleoptera Meloidae

The striped blister beetle, Epicauta vittata Fabricius , is a native species and eastern in distribution. It has been collected from all eastern states west to, and including, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, and Oklahoma. In Canada, it is known from Quebec and Ontario. Populations from the southeastern coastal plain including Florida, southern Georgia, and eastern South Carolina differ in appearance from beetles found elsewhere and are called the lemniscate race, but interbreed...

Phyllotreta zimmermanni Crotch Coleoptera Chrysomelidae

Phyllotreta Striolata

Zimmermann's flea beetle is widespread in North America, and is known from nearly all states and provinces. However, it is most frequently found in the northeastern and midwestern states. Its abundance is reported to have diminished with the introduction from Europe of crucifer flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae Goeze , and striped flea beetle, Phyllotreta striolata Fabricius , presumably owing to competition. Host Plants. This beetle feeds principally on cru-cifers, including...

Rhopalosiphum maidis Fitch Homoptera Aphididae

Vegetable Pests Identification

This species may be of Asiatic origin, but now has a world-wide distribution. Corn leaf aphid does not persist in areas of severe winters, so it is absent from most of Canada, and northern Europe and Asia, and re-invades large areas of temperate regions annually. In North America, it is normally found on corn through most of the United States, but is relatively uncommon on this host in the northwestern states, preferring instead to feed on barley. In Canada, it is found...

Acanthoscelides obtectus Say Coleoptera Bruchidae

Bruchidae Identification

Bean weevil is believed to have originated in Central America. It is now widespread in the United States and southern Canada, most of Central and South America, Africa, southern Europe, and New Zealand. Host Plants. This insect is a pest of several legumes including bean, chickpea, cowpea, faba bean, lentil, lima bean, mung bean, pea, and soybean. Many cultivars of bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, are susceptible, including kidney bean, navy bean, pink bean, red bean, wax bean, and white...

Diatraea crambidoides Grote Lepidoptera Pyralidae

Corn Stalk Growth Stages

Southern cornstalk borer is, as its common name suggests, found predominantly in the southeastern states. It may be found as far north as Maryland and southern Ohio, and as far west as Kansas and New Mexico. However, these are the geographic extremes, and as a pest its range is mostly limited to the southeastern states from Alabama and Florida to Virginia. It frequently has been confused with related species, particularly sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis Fabricius , so some...

Discestra trifolii Hufnagel Lepidoptera Noctuidae

Zeichnung Spodoptera Exigua

Clover cutworm occurs throughout the United States except for the southeastern states. It also occurs throughout southern Canada and in Alaska. Apparently it is a native species, though it is also reported to occur in Europe and Asia. Host Plants. This species is an occasional pest of several crops, preferring crops and weeds in the plant family Chenopodiaceae. Among vegetables attacked are beet, cabbage, lettuce, onion, pea, spinach, tomato, and turnip. Field crops consumed...

Melanoplus bivittatus Say Orthoptera Acrididae

Orthoptera Soil Diapause

This native grasshopper is widely distributed in northern North America. In the United States it extends from the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans, and is absent only from the Gulf Coast region. In Canada it occurs from Nova Scotia to British Columbia. Host Plants. This species is adaptable, and is found in a variety of habitats. However, it is most abundant in moist meadows, dense vegetation along water courses, and in disturbed, weedy areas. In the Great Plains region it is...

Southern Green Stink Bug Nezara viridula Linnaeus Hemiptera Pentatomidae

The Body Parts Stink Bug

Southern green stink bug has a world-wide distribution. It is found on all continents where agriculture is practiced, but absent or rare from regions with cold winters. Its origin is probably eastern Africa, and was first observed in the western hemisphere in 1798. Distribution in North America is limited primarily to the southeastern United States Virginia to Florida in the east, to Ohio and Arkansas in the midwest, and to Texas in the southwest. However, it has become...

Dysaphis foeniculus Theobald Homoptera Aphididae

These species are native to Europe and Asia, but are now widely distributed around the world, including North America. Dysaphis crataegi is found in the northern United States, including California, and perhaps in some parts of southern Canada. Dysaphis foeniculus seems to be limited to areas of west of the Rocky Mountains. In North America, economic problems seem to be limited to carrot production in California. Other Dysaphis species are occasionally reported to be associated...

Urbanus proteus Linnaeus Lepidoptera Hesperiidae

Urbanus Proteus Larva

Bean leafroller is a tropical species, but apparently is a native to the southeastern United States. It is found throughout Florida and in coastal areas from South Carolina west to eastern Texas. It also invades most of the southeastern states, even attaining New England during warm years, and regu larly invades the southernmost areas of the Southwest. It cannot tolerate prolonged freezing temperatures, however, and in the United States it persists only in the southern coastal...

Characteristics of the Major Vegetable Crops

Artichoke, more correctly known as globe artichoke, is a thistle-like plant grown for the edible blossom bud. It is one of only a few vegetable plants grown in North America as a perennial, with new growth arising from the roots annually. Like some other perennials, it can be grown with some success as an annual crop by planting roots, but this is not a common practice. Although artichoke can be grown over a broad geographic area, it is not cold-hardy. Commercial production is limited to the...

Family Bruchidae Seed Beetles and Weevils

Bean Weevil, Acanthoscelides obtectus Say 49 Broadbean Weevil, Bruchus rufimanus Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius and Southern Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis Linnaeus 52 Pea Weevil, Bruchus pisorum Linnaeus 54 Family Carabidae Ground Beetles 57 Fabricius , Seedcorn Beetle, Stenolophus lecontei Chaudoir and Slender Seedcorn Beetle, Clivina impressifrons LeConte 57 Cabbage Flea Beetle, Phyllotreta albionica Corn Flea Beetle, Chaetocnema pulicaria Melsheimer and Toothed...

Tetanops myopaeformis Roder Diptera Otitidae

Terminate Pest

This native insect is found over a wide area of western North America. In the United States, it is known from Washington to Minnesota in the north, and from California to Colorado in the south. In Canada it occurs in the Prairie provinces. Host Plants. Sugarbeet root maggot affects crops in the family Chenopodiaceae beet, spinach, Swiss chard, and sugarbeet. Spinach appears the most suitable host, though it usually is not heavily infested because it is not normally grown in the...

Liriomyza sativae Blanchard Dptera Agromyzidae

Liriomyza Sativae

This leaf miner is found commonly in the southern United States from Florida to California and Hawaii, and in most of Central and South America. Occasionally it is reported in more northern areas such as Ohio. Because this insect has been confused with American serpentine leafminer, Liriomyza trifolii Burgess , and other related species, many location records are incorrect or unconfirmed. Host Plants. Vegetable leafminer attacks a wide variety of plants, principally in the...

Autographa califomica Speyer Lepidoptera Noctuidae

Larva Spodoptera Linseed

Alfalfa looper is native to North America, and is western in distribution. In the United States it occurs occasionally in Nebraska and Kansas, and frequently in all states further west. It is most damaging along the West Coast. In Canada its distribution is similar, and is considered a pest only in British Columbia and Alberta. Alfalfa looper is also known from Mexico. Host Plants. This insect feeds on numerous plants. Vegetable crops reportedly injured include beet, bean,...

Acalymma trivittatum Mannerheim Coleoptera Chrysomelidae

Insects Black Beetle With White Stripes

Striped cucumber beetle, Acalymma vittatum Fabricius , is found throughout the United States and Canada east of the Rocky Mountains, and most of Central America. It is not usually considered a severe pest in the Rocky Mountain and Great Plains states, nor in the southeast. However, in the midwestern and northeastern states, and in eastern Canada, it is the most important pest of cucurbits. Acalymma trivittatum Mannerheim , called the western striped cucumber beetle, replaces A....

Thrips tabaci Lindeman Thysanoptera Thripidae

Thysanoptera Indent Indent

Onion thrips is believed to have originated near the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea, or perhaps India. It was first observed in North America in 1872, and by the early 1900s had spread throughout the United States and southern Canada. It is easily transported on plant material, and redistribution of onion thrips occurs frequently with commercial shipment of bulbs and plants. It is now found throughout the world. See color figure 181. Host Plants. Onion thrips has a wide host...

The Types of Insect Injury

Insects cause several different types of injury to vegetables, with some species capable of causing more than one type of damage. Recognition of the nature of injury is often an important diagnostic feature in the process of determining pest identity. Because the mouthparts of insects are principally useful for chew ing, or for piercing and sucking liquid plant contents, the principal forms of injury reflect these major behaviors. The most common form of injury occurs when insects live...

Listroderes difficilis Germar Coleoptera Curculionidae

Tachinidae Larvae Hyalomyodes

First found in North America in 1922, vegetable weevil quickly spread from Mississippi, its point of introduction, to other southern states from South Carolina to California, and to Hawaii. Its distribution is limited to warm climates, and it is most common in Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi. However, vegetable weevil can withstand moderately cold weather, including brief periods of below-freezing temperature. Originally described from Brazil, vegetable weevil has also invaded...

Bedellia orchilella Walsingham Lepidoptera Lyonetiidae

Morningglory leafminer apparently is a native to Eurasia, but now it is widely distributed in the United States. Morningglory leafminer likely occurs in southern Canada but it is not recorded as a pest there. It is found in most areas of the world, including both tropical and temperate climates. Sweet-potato leafminer is associated with sweet potato in Hawaii, but its origin is uncertain, and it does not occur elsewhere in the United States or Canada. Host Plants. Larvae of both...

Melittia calabaza Duckworth and Eichlin Lepidoptera Sesiidae

Melittia Cucurbitae

Squash vine borer, M. cucurbitae, is found throughout the United States east of the Rocky Mountains, and is also known from Central America. In Canada it occurs in southern Ontario. In the southwest, M. cucurbitae is replaced by M. calabaza Eichlin and Duckworth, 1988 . This latter species is poorly studied, but seems to have a biology similar to M. cucurbitae the only known exception is host range, as noted below. Host Plants. Squash vine borer feeds on wild and cultivated...

Pest Management Philosophy

There are several ways to approach the management of vegetable pests. In some instances profit is the major concern, though in other cases maximum yield or pesticide-free vegetables are desired. In some cropping systems, or for some particular pests, efforts are made to prevent pest populations from establishing by the preventative application of insecticide. On the other hand, often crops are monitored and are not sprayed until the first appearance of a particular pest. In still other...

Empoasca fabae Harris Homoptera Cicadellidae

Empoasca Abrupta

Potato leafhopper is found throughout the humid, low-altitude regions of eastern United States, occurring as far west as eastern Colorado DeLong, 1931 . It occurs in eastern Canada, including the Prairie Provinces, but is most damaging in southern Ontario. Potato leafhopper successfully overwinters in Gulf Coast States from Louisiana to Florida and disperses northward annually. Leafhoppers typically arrive with warm fronts in midwestern states during April to mid-May, and in...

Southern White Ascia monuste Linnaeus Lepidoptera Pieridae

Southern white resides in Florida, the Gulf Coast areas of the southern states, southern Texas, Mexico, and most of Latin America. This butterfly exhibits strong migratory tendencies, moving northward in the summer and southward in the winter, but in North America it rarely becomes numerous anywhere other than subtropical, coastal areas. They are more dispersive under high-density conditions. Host Plants. Larvae feed on plants in the families Cruciferae, Bataceae, Capparidaceae,...

Loxostege sticticalis Linnaeus Lepidoptera Pyralidae

Loxostege Sticticalis

Beet webworm is found in the northern regions of Europe and Asia, and apparently is an immigrant from Europe. In the United States and Canada, beet webworm is present from coast to coast, but is a pest principally in western sugarbeet-growing areas from Alberta and Manitoba in the north to Utah and Kansas in the south Pepper, 1938 . Host Plants. Known principally as a pest of sugar-beet, this insect also feeds readily on table beet and chard. During periods of abundance over 80...

Disonycha mellicollis Say Coleoptera Chrysomelidae

Pictures Spinach Flea Beetles

Spinach flea beetle and yellow-necked flea beetle occur throughout the United States and Canada, east of the Rocky Mountains. Three-spotted flea beetle occupies the same area as the aforementioned species, but also occurs in British Columbia, Idaho, and Utah. These insects are native to North America. Host Plants. These flea beetles are known principally as pests of the family Chenopodiaceae beet, spinach, and Swiss chard. Therefore, it is not surprising that they damage...

North American Vegetable Crops

Production of vegetable crops is a fundamental industry, a popular hobby, and an important element of our culture. The farm-gate value of North American vegetable crops exceeds 10 billion annually and fuels several other industries such as equipment manufacture, transportation, and retail and restaurant food sales worth many times the value of the raw materials. Vegetable production also has immense value as a form of recreation and relaxation. Surveys of recreational habits consistently reveal...

Liriomyza huidobrensis Blanchard Diptera Agromyzidae

Liriomyza Huidobrensis

Pea leafminer is widely distributed in South America, and seems likely to be native to that region. In the United States, it occurs west of the Rocky Mountains but is abundant principally in California Spencer, 1981 . Reports of infestations in eastern states apparently are based on misidentification. However, this leafminer is easily transported with cut flowers and vegetables, and there is concern that shipment of produce could result in establishment of this pest in eastern...

Euschistus variolarius Palisot de Beauvois Hemiptera Pentatomidae

Euschistus Pronotum

Onespotted stink bug is native to North America. It is distributed widely in the United States it is absent only from the southwestern states. In the midwest and other northern areas it is considered to be the most common stinkbug species Esselbaugh, 1948 . In Canada it is known from Quebec and Ontario west to British Columbia. Host Plants. This species is reported to feed on numerous plants. Among vegetable crops attacked are asparagus, bean, cantaloupe, corn, cowpea, mustard,...