Animal manures

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Many animal manures are moderately rich in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. However, they are not as potent as chemical fertilizers. Generally,

Figure 3.05 Leaf Eater

The Vorando Leaf Eater shreds leaves wet or dry as fast as they can be loaded into the bushel-sized hopper. Shreads leaves down to one tidy bundle. Use for composting or as a fall garden mulch, VORANDO POWER PRODUCTS, INC. 386 Park Ave. South Mew York, MY 10016

Figure 3.05 Leaf Eater

The Vorando Leaf Eater shreds leaves wet or dry as fast as they can be loaded into the bushel-sized hopper. Shreads leaves down to one tidy bundle. Use for composting or as a fall garden mulch, VORANDO POWER PRODUCTS, INC. 386 Park Ave. South Mew York, MY 10016

Figure 3.06

IMPROVING SOIL WITH FALL LEAVES

Rather than throw away or bum fall leaves, collect them with a sweeper-shredder or a power lawn-mower with a lawnmower bag. You can then:-

  1. Sheet compost by tilling the leaves into the garden soil with a rotary tiller. If you till the leaves into the soil in the fall, they will be decomposed by spring. Sprinkle fertilizer (10-5-5) over the leaves at thje rate of about 10 to 15 pounds per 1,000 square feet of garden. The nitrogen will feed the decay organisms.
  2. Compost in a heap using one of the methods described above. A compost starter will help speed up the process. Work into the soil in the spring.

Handy-Hoop

Handy-hoop is a metal hoop that is easily snapped into a large 3 to 4mm plastic bag. It comes in handy for picking up leaves and garden waste to dump into the compost The bag is held open for easy refilling every time. D.F.S., INC. P.O. Box 103 Scotch Plains, NJ 07076

Keeps plastic bags open. Good base for rain cover.

COMPOSITION OF ANIMAL MANURES

COMPOSITION OF COMPOST

Figure 3.07

Manure Type

%N

%P205

%K20

%Ca

%MG

Fresh Cattle

0.53

0.29

0.48

0.29

0.11

Fresh Chicken

0.89

048

0.83

0.38

0.13

Fresh Horse

0.55

0.27

0.57

0.27

0.11

Fresh Sheep

089

0.48

0.83

0.21

0.13

Fresh Swine

0.63

0.46

0.41

0.19

0.03

Dried Cattle

2.00

1.80

2.20

Dried Sheep

1.40

1.00

3.00

Figure 3.08

Compost Material

Nitrogen

%N

Banana skins (ash)

_

Cantalope Rings

Cattail reeds

200

Coffee grounds

208

Corncob ash

Corn stalks, leaves

0.30

Eggs, rotten

2.25

Feathers

15 30

Fish scraps

2.0-7.5

Grapefruit skins

Oak leaves

0.46

Pine needles

4 15

Tea grounds

4.15

Wood ashes

Phosphorus

Potassium (Potash)

%P205

%K20

3.25

41.76

977

12.21

0.81

3.43

032

0.28

50.00

0.13

0.33

0.40

0.15

1.5-6.0

_

3.58

3C.60

0.35

0.21

0.12

003

062

040

1.00

HANDY-HOOP

Keeps plastic bags open. Good base for rain cover.

you should use rotted manure, not fresh. The bacteria in your soil will need extra nitrogen to break down fresh manure and may divert some of the nitrogen from your plants. Moreover, like organic materials that have been composted, manure that has already rotted or decomposed is in a form your plants can use more easily. You can obtain rotted manure by placing fresh manure in a pile, covering it with a thin layer of dirt, or letting it stand a few months.

Do not buy steer manure, because it is high in salt content which offsets any benefit that the manure might have. While the salt can be leached out by watering, the leaching process also washes the nitrogen out of the manure.

Hen, horse, sheep, and rabbit manures are know as 'hot manures' because of their high nitrogen content. Cow and hog manures are called 'cold manures' because they are fairly low in nitrogen and break down slowly. (For information on other animal manures, see Figure 3-07.]

By burrowing, feeding and excreting, earthworms break up the soil particles and let air and moisture in. They usually don t go very deep, but the minute that plants start taking root, earthworms go with the roots, improving the soil.

The gray pink worms (Helodrilus caliginosus and Helodarilus trapezoides) are important to your garden. The red one (Eisenia foetida), the fishworm, is not so beneficial—it wants to fool around in damp spongy places instead of getting down to work. This red worm is, however, good for compost piles.

Figure 3.12

Figure 3.10

Figure 3.12

THE B.D. COMPOST STARTER

This is a concentrated mixture of several cultivated strains of beneficial oil bacteria, enzymes, and plant growth-promoting factors. These bacteria have been isolated from the most fertile humus soils. Under the proper condition of moisture, aeration and organic matter, the B.D. Compost Starter will:-

  • Quickly decompose raw organic matter and wastes by breaking down into simpler compounds,
  • Reassemble these simple compounds into complex, lasting substances-humus.
  • Fix nitrogen from the air and make it available.
  • Increase the availability of minerals in the soil and transform unavailable minerals into their available form.
  • Mold the soil and improve its structure.
  • Prevent leaching and washing away.

Contact*

THE PFIEFFER FOUNDATION, INC. Laboratory Div, Threefold Farms Spring Valley, NY 10977

HOMEMADE ORGANIC FERTILIZER

This brew utilizes fresh chicken manure—which can be dangerous because of the high amonia content It is perfectly safe for vegetables, however, if handled properly. Place a shovelful of fresh chicken manure into a cloth bag. Submerge the bag in a bucket containing 2lA gallons of water from 2 to 3 days. Store mixture in an airtight container. To use, dilute 12 ounces of the liquid in one gallon of water.

Figure 3.13

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