Strawberries

Berry Boosters

Berry Boosters

Acai, Maqui And Many Other Popular Berries That Will Change Your Life And Health. Berries have been demonstrated to be some of the healthiest foods on the planet. Each month or so it seems fresh research is being brought out and new berries are being exposed and analyzed for their health giving attributes.

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Sweet and Crunchy Growing Fruits Berries and Nuts

S omegrown fruit, berries, and nuts take more time and care than some V rn other kinds of gardening. Although soft fruits like strawberries, grapes, and raspberries yield delicious results within few months or less, tree fruits and nuts require more patience and can take several years to be productive. Fruits and nuts also require a different sort of preparation than trees and bushes that don't bear them. But at harvest time, the work is all worth it In almost every region of North America, you can find a type of fruit or nut (or variety of fruit or nut) that's well-adapted and fairly easy to grow. Note Many gardeners collectively group fruits, berries and nuts together as a topic because the cultivating methods are similar for all of them. So for the sake of making the descriptions in this chapters simple, when I mention fruit, please keep in mind that I mean fruit, berries, and nuts unless I say otherwise. Also, all of the fruit-bearing plants in this chapter, except strawberries,...

Where to plant Strawberries

Strawberries prefer to grow in any soil which is not too alkaline, too dry, or in need of drainage. The best is a light, rich loam with plenty of humus and a pH factor between 5 and 6. If you are planning on planting Strawberries in the spring, prepare their bed the previous fall on a plot which has been cultivated for at least two years. A site which slopes slightly is best because of the perfect drainage it will naturally provide. And a southern exposure greatly assists with the earlier formation of blossoms and fruit. Be careful, though, if late frosts are prevalent in your area, as the southern exposure may fool you and cause you to remove the mulch too early.

Currants and Gooseberries

Unlike most other fruits, currants and gooseberries grow well in partial shade. They prefer cool, moist locations on a north slope or the northern side of a building, for example. Currants and gooseberries prefer rich soil with a high water-holding capacity. To prepare your site, incorporate organic matter well ahead of planting, particularly if you have light, sandy soil. Currants and gooseberries (Ribes species) are hardy and easy to grow. Their sweet-tart fruits make excellent jams, pies, and jellies, and they are popular ornamental plants. Although many people today are unfamiliar with these fruits, New Yorkers grew 2,700 acres of them in the 1920s.

Strawberries in Pots Barrels

Strawberry Barrel

Strawberries can be grown in barrels, in special strawberry pots, on movable strawberry walls, and in hanging baskets if you should need to move them around to keep them in the sun. Strawberries need good drainage and a soil with plenty of humus. You can grow them from healthy plants bought from nurseries or garden centers, or the plantlets that form on the varieties with long runners can be pegged down to form new plants that are planted out in the summer. Strawberries must be protected from frost when they are flowering and fruiting. They should also not be kept for more than 3 years as virus diseases are likely to occur. It's best to burn the old plants, and then plant out new. Place the barrel in a sunny location and keep it well watered once growth starts, being sure to add manure or fertilizer in mid-spring. The strawberries will grow and run all over the barrel. A Strawberry Wall is made of a framework of wire mesh. Strawberries are planted at the bottom and trained to climb up...

How To Grow Strawberries

Mmmm Strawberries There's just nothing that can beat their taste early on a summer's morning. Strawberries are hardy, perennial herbs grown throughout the United States, Canada, Alaska and parts of the Yukon. They thrive best in cool, moist areas, but, with special treatment, can even grow in the hot, Gulf states.

Keeping current with currants and gooseberries

A mainstay in European gardens and gaining popularity in North America, currants and gooseberries (Ribes species) make excellent jams, jellies, and dessert berries. The U.S. government at one time banned growing this group of ornamental and delicious fruits, because Ribes species contribute to a deadly white pine disease called white pine blister rust. Several states still restrict the sale and transport of Ribes, although disease-resistant varieties, which eliminate the problem, are now available. Use currents and gooseberries as ornamental landscape shrubs. They bear attractive flowers and fruit, have maple-shaped leaves, and remain 3 to 4 feet high. Gooseberries do have thorns, however, so choose their planting locations carefully. Plant the plants 3 to 4 feet apart in fertile, well-drained, compost-enriched soil with a pH of 6 to 7. Full sun to light shade is best. Most plants in this group are hardy to Zone 3, but spring frost may damage the early flowers. In very cold regions,...

Day Neutral Strawberries

Unlike the common June-bearing strawberries discussed above, day-neutral strawberries flower and produce fruit anytime temperatures are between 35 and 85 degrees F. Instead of a bumper crop in June and July, harvest is spread out through the summer to as late as October, and plants yield well during the planting year. Because they do not send out runners as profusely as June bearers, you need to manage them differently. Figure 19. You can plant day-neutral strawberries in single rows (a), but staggered double rows (b) are more productive. Early care. Day-neutral strawberries prefer the same soil and sites as their June-bearing cousins. Plant them in the early spring, at the same time as June-bearing strawberries. They also are ideal for growing as annuals in containers. Day-neutral cultivars do not produce runners profusely, so matted-row management is not practical. Instead, plant them closer together about 5 to 9 inches apart in rows about 42 inches apart. Remove runners for the...

Tomato and mascarpone ice cream with raspberries

8oz (2 50g) ripe tomatoes, peeled, seeded, and finely diced (mild-tasting varieties such as yellow or vine-ripened cherry tomatoes work best) 1 2 cup fresh raspberries 1 Put the tomatoes and raspberries in a glass bowl. Toss in the sugar and Amaretto. Chill until needed.

Buffaloberries

Early settlers served the berries as a sauce with buffalo meat. They can be dried and stored or used in jellies, sauces, and conserves. Their agreeable flavor lends well to out-of-hand eating, but harvest is difficult due to the 1- to 2-inch thorns. Like legumes, these plants fix nitrogen from the atmosphere. A related species, the russet buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis) is thorn-less but has bitter, sour berries.

Elderberries

The common elder (.Sambucus nigra) is a deciduous tree native to Europe, western Asia and parts of northern Africa and now grows wild over much of the USA and Canada. The shiny purple-black blue or red berries are widely used in preserves, and both the fruit and flowers are popular for making wine. The plant grows as a large shrub or small tree and is often considered too wild and vigorous for the garden. Its new woody growth gives off an unpleasant smell and was used in the past as a fly-repellent. In the northern USA, the American or sweet elder (5. canadensis) is widely grown and several improved clones are available. They have an extremely high Vitamin C content. Depending on the variety, they grow from zones 3-9, but are not common in zones 5-8.

Strawberries

Plant in early spring in soil where no strawberries, brambles, or crops in the tomato family (including potatoes, peppers, and eggplants) have been grown for several years. Strawberries are shallow rooted. Keep plants well watered, especiallyjust after planting. Because they bear early and are relatively easy to grow, strawberries are a great crop for you to start with in your home fruit planting. Strawberries are the most widely grown fruit crop in the world. They can flourish from tropical highlands to subarctic regions. The plants are hardy throughout New York State (if managed and mulched correctly) and can tolerate a wide range of soil types. Strawberries provide more vitamin C than oranges and have fewer calories than most other fruits (see Table i, page 1). Day-neutral cultivars, which bear fruit from June through October in the Northeast, are now available (see the section Day-Neutral Strawberries starting on page 62). The section below discusses traditional June-bearing...

Gooseberries

TYPES or GOOSEBERRIES TYPES or GOOSEBERRIES Like currants, gooseberries are alternate hosts of white pine blister rust and can be planted only in areas where this disease is not a problem. The local state agricultural extension service or forestry department should be contacted before ordering plants.

Mulberries

Mulberry flowers are small and inconspicuous. The fruits are numerous and resemble slender blackberries. They do not ripen all at once, but when they are ready they drop from the tree. They can be gathered by covering the ground with a sheet or canvas and shaking the tree. The fruits are used for jelly, wine, and desserts. The fruits also attract birds in large numbers and can be messy, making the tree unsuitable for public spaces. Plant mulberries to draw birds away from the fruit crops.

Raspberries

Oregon Shrubs With Red Berries

Raspberries are the hardiest of the cane berries, and perhaps the most worthwhile home garden crop for several reasons. Prices for the market fruit are high because care and labor are expensive, and market raspberries are subject to a long enough holding and handling period that fruit loses its finest flavor and may be bruised. Home garden fruit can be eaten at its peak. The red raspberry is the most popular, but raspberries come in a variety of colors and plant forms red, purple, yellow, and black fruits, with the red and yellow fruits growing either one or two crops on stiff canes and the purple and black fruits growing one crop on trailing canes. Because they are trailing, purples and blacks require trellising. One-crop (single crop) raspberries produce fruit on canes that grew the previous year. Two-crop (everbearing) raspberries produce some fruit at the top of current-season canes in fall, and then produce a second crop on the rest of the cane the following year. Raspberries are...

Blueberries

Berries Coville

Blueberries demand the right climate and planting soil but take very little care if you provide suitable conditions. They are about as hardy as a peach but need a fair amount of win Blueberries belong to the heath family and count azaleas, rhododendrons, mountain laurel, and huckleberries among their cousins. If any of these grow naturally near your garden, or if you have prepared an artificial site that suits them, then blueberries will also do well. Blueberries like soil rich in organic material such as peat very acid, but extremely well drained. Such soils are found in areas of high rainfall, which is lucky, since the berries need constant moisture, There are major commercial plantings of blueberries in sandy soils in New Jersey, especially Burlington and Atlantic Counties in certain areas of Michigan in Washington and Oregon and to a certain extent in New York, Massachusetts, and Indiana. Southern gardeners have a choice of two kinds of blueberries, depending on climate. The...

Berries

Berries are tempting to grow because most offer rich rewards for a small investment of time and space. A little sunlight and a pot, for example, are all you need to grow a crop of luscious strawberries. In considering berries you must work out the space and number of plants needed for a reasonable supply of fruit. If the plants are right for your climate and are given excellent care, the number of plants necessary to supply a family of five would be something like this Strawberries 26 (20-30 quarts) Raspberries 24 (20-30 quarts) Blackberries 12 (10-15 quarts) Blueberries 4 (15-17 quarts) Currants 3 (10-12 quarts) Gooseberries 3 (10-12 quarts) Strawberries are without question the easiest plants to work into any space you may have available. On a south-facing apartment terrace you can produce a crop in containers such as strawberry jars or moss-lined wire strawberry trees. An ideal plant for containers, where you can find it, is the European wild strawberry, or raise de bois. This...

Blackberries

Comanche Nuts And Berries

Blackberries and raspberries are closely related and have similar growing requirements, but blackberries are larger and more vigorous, and some varieties are less hardy. Blackberries come in two fairly Blackberries like a light, well-drained soil with a high moisture-holding capacity. Do not plant them where tomatoes, potatoes, or eggplants have grown previously, since the site may be infected with verticillium wilt and the berries cannot grow there. The stiff-caned berries need no support, but can be confined between two wires to save space. Trailing blackberries should be cut to the ground after fruiting and the clippings destroyed to reduce the chances of spreading disease. New growth that sprouts during the last part of summer will fruit the following year. If you disturb or cut roots of blackberries they will sucker badly. If you want more plants, chop off pieces of root beside the parent plants and set them in the new planting site like seed. If you don't want more plants, mulch...

Highbush Cranberries

Highbush cranberries (also known as American cranberry bush) are in the same family as elderberries. The size and color of the fruit are the only characteristics this species has in common with commercial cranberries. Growing Highbush Cranberries Highbush cranberries are very winter hardy and grow well in Zones 2 to 7. They are easy to transplant, grow in both sun and partial shade, and perform well on a wide range of soils. They tend to decline if subjected to too much moisture stress. Most highbush cranberries are sold simply as the species, but some culti-vars are available. Wentworth, Andrews, and Hahs were selected for their high-quality fruit.

Sublime strawberries

Probably the most popular small fruits for the home garden, strawberries are also among the hardest to grow organically. Strawberries have many insect pests and diseases that damage plants and berries alike. Establishing your planting in well-drained, fertile soil and maintaining a weed-free patch are essential for success. You can choose among three kinds of strawberries, depending on when you want fruit. Consult your local extension office or nurseries for the best varieties for your area. Also see the Surfing for small fruits sidebar in this chapter. June-bearing varieties produce one large crop of berries in late spring to early summer. Day-neutral berries, the newest type, can produce fruit continuously throughout the growing season. Diseases and insect pests that prey on strawberries One of the most serious insect pests that affect strawberries is the tarnished plant bug, which can severely damage the developing fruit. These insects spend the winter in plant debris and live on...

Using established plants

If an old strawberry bed is being used for a permanently mulched bed, preparation of the bed begins with the harvesting of this year's strawberries. As the picker harvests, he marks with pegs or plant markers the beast-bearing plants in each row, trying to space markers about 10-12 inches apart. When all berries have been harvested, all the unmarked plants are pulled out and mulch is removed. Well-rotted manure, compost, decomposed sawdust, plus cottonseed meal or enriched leaf mold are then worked into the top layer of soil. If the soil is too alkaline, a generous amount of peat moss is incorporated around each plant. The soil is smoothed out, and a six inch mulch is again placed around plants which are ready to form runners.

Control Those Weeds

Protect blossom and tender shoots from frost with garden fleece (see classified pages) Ventilate covered strawberries for pollination and disease control De-blossom perpetual strawberries until late May Continue pest and disease control, except during flowering There is, though, another factor to consider. In the case of strawberries and young raspberry plantings, the root disturbance caused by hoeing can be seriously damaging to the plants. Similarly, although digging out perennial weeds is the preferred method of control, it also can be damaging to crop roots.

Bird and Rodent Control

Birds are a common pest of blueberries. Their impact varies, depending on location and bird density. Oregon reported up to 60 crop loss from birds.(Main et al., circa 2000) In a Florida study (Main et al., circa 2000), blueberries protected with bird netting yielded the same as those unprotected. Various methods of control have been tried including scare-eye balloons, Mylar reflective tape, and sonic devices with varying levels of success. The problem with most repellents or scare tactics is that birds become habituated to the stimulus, rendering it ineffective after a short time. Sometimes, growers overcome this problem by changing the stimulus frequently e.g., switching from balloons to Mylar tape, or moving the balloons from one site to another. Properly applied bird netting has provided consistent and predictable control, but it is expensive to purchase and set up. At the time of this writing (2004), the cost for -inch bird netting 14 feet wide by 100 feet long is 85 plus shipping...

Blueberry Fertilization Practices

Once a blueberry planting is established, supplemental fertilization can be applied in a number of forms and by several means. Generally, supplemental nitrogen is the greatest concern, followed by potassium. Blueberries have a low phosphorus requirement and typically require little, if any, phosphorus fertilization. In fact, excessive phosphorus has been one of the factors linked to iron chlorosis in blueberries. High calcium levels are also undesirable. Nitrogen fertilizer recommendations vary somewhat from region to region. As a general guideline, 100 to 120 pounds of nitrogen per acre are commonly recommended on mulched berries a reduced rate of 50 to 60 pounds per acre is advised where little or no mulch is used.(Clark, 1987) In conventional production, nitrogen is often applied in three split applications one at bud break, followed by two more at six-week intervals. Adjustments may be necessary for less-soluble organic fertilizers. One rule of thumb suggests that these...

The Importance of Soil pH

Blueberries are distinct among fruit crops in their soil and fertility requirements. As members of the Rhododendron family, blueberries require an acidic (low pH) soil, preferably in the 4.8 to 5.5 pH range. When soil pH is appreciably higher than 5.5, iron chlorosis often results when soil Blueberries have a relatively low nitrogen requirement and thrive on organic fertilizers. Soil pH also plays a significant role in nitrogen management for blueberries. Research shows that blueberries prefer soil and fertilizer nitrogen in the ammonium form, absorbing and using it much more efficiently than nitrate nitrogen the form preferred by most other commercial crop plants. Neutral and high-pH soils favor nitrification the rapid conversion of ammonium nitrogen to nitrate through the activity of nitrifying microorganisms. In an acidic soil, however, the ammonium form of nitrogen predominates and is readily available to blueberries. For instance, when a slow-release organic fertilizer like...

Inrow Weed Management and Mulching

In much of the country, blueberries are grown on mulched, raised beds. Rabbiteyes and old highbush plantings are commonly grown without mulch. Raised beds reduce the incidence of soil- and water-borne diseases. Thick organic mulches provide weed and disease suppression, soil temperature regulation, slow-release nutrients, organic matter, and moisture conservation. The latter is especially important because blueberry roots lack root hairs the primary sites for water and mineral absorption on most plants. This characteristic makes water management of paramount concern and goes a long way toward explaining why irrigation and mulching are recommended practices. The importance of maintaining a weed-free zone around blueberries was demonstrated in a Georgia study(NeSmith et al., 1995) using rabbiteye blueberries which have a more vigorous root system than highbush. Researchers determined While the mulch suppresses many weeds, the moist organic medium can also become a haven for annual weeds...

Leafhopper

Leafhoppers are small, mobile insects that are often found on stems or the undersides of leaves. They feed by piercing the plant surface to suck plant juices.(Elsner and Whalon, 1998) Leafhop-pers transmit a microorganism that causes stunt disease. In areas where stunt disease is a known problem, leafhopper control is suggested. The botanical pesticide sabadilla, as well as insecticidal soap and diatomaceous earth, are reported to be effective against these pests. Surround (for processing blueberries) and Neemix are registered for leafhopper control on blueberries. Kaolin clay in Surround can be used for suppression of leafhoppers on processing blueberries only.

Plant Spacing

Highbush blueberries are typically spaced 4 to 4Vi feet in the row, with 8 to 12 feet between rows. As bushes can get quite large at maturity, many growers find that 10- to 12-foot row spacings approximately 900 to 1090 plants per acre are preferable for tractor operations (mowing, harvesting, and spraying). Rabbiteyes are typically spaced at 5 to 8 feet within a row, with 12 to 14 feet between the rows, or 388 to 726 plants per acre. Dr. J.N. Moore and others at the University of Arkansas have experimented with denser within-row plant spacings for highbush blueberries, effectively doubling the number of plants per acre. Yields during the first five years after planting were found to be substantially higher (a boon to the overall economics of blueberry produc-tion especially where growers have made high investments in drip irrigation and bird netting). These researchers have been careful to point out, however, that beyond the fifth year, inter-plant competition may create problems,...

Potting Compost

Bags of ericaceous compost are suitable for blueberries but some coarser material such as chipped conifer bark, mixed with it improves texture. Home-made compost tends to be too dense and often includes kitchen waste, which is not good for blueberries. These are equally suitable for an allotment, fruit and vegetable garden, or as an ornamental feature. Use railway sleepers, decking boards, bricks, rocks or even the very ornamental flint blocks. Fill to the brim with a mixture of garden soil (if not alkaline) and organic matter. Plant with a selection of highbush and half-high blueberries, and finish off with cranberries or even alpine strawberries as a carpet below them. Keep blueberries well watered, but not water-logged, with tap water if necessary, but rainwater is best. All blueberries need to have a winter chill in order to flower and fruit properly the following summer. They certainly don't need to be mollycoddled. However, if a big freeze is forecast it may be sensible to put...

Marketing

Were 20 to 100 higher than for conventional blueberries, depending on supply and demand. (Krewer, 2001) Highbush blueberries typically start producing in the third season, and yields increase annually for the next four years. At full capacity, blueberries yield about 3 tons per acre. As blueberries are expensive to establish and maintain, growers often do not realize a return on their capital investment until the seventh year. Well-maintained blueberry bushes remain productive for at least 15 to 20 years. Blueberries ripen fairly predictably, according to the region in which they are grown. In heavy bearing years, market prices can drop dramatically, with early-bearing regions faring well and late-bearing regions doing poorly. Harvest patterns follow a sequence beginning with rabbiteyes from Georgia and Texas, followed by highbush berries from North Carolina and the Southern Interior Highlands (Arkansas, Tennessee, Kentucky, and Missouri). These are followed by the Northern Interior...

Picking And Storing

Blueberry fruit should be picked when it is blue all over, with not a hint of pink-ness near the stalk end, otherwise it may be sour or lacking in flavour. Once ripe blueberries will keep for a week or more, either on the bushes if the weather is not too baking hot, or in the fridge. They also freeze well. There are now three main groups of blueberries available North American highbush, which average 1.5m (5ft) at maturity, Half-high blueberries which grow up to about 1m (3ft 3in), and Southern highbush which vary greatly in height according to variety, but need less winter chilling than the others and are not really suitable for colder climates.

Aphids

Aphids have many natural enemies like ladybugs, lacewings, and parasitic wasps. Encouraging these natural enemies with habitat plantings can keep aphids and other pests on blueberries below economic thresholds. Remove the virus-infected plants, which will have bright red streaks or straplike leaves. Avoid overfertilization of the crop. Organic growers can also use insecticidal soap to control aphids.

Cherry fruitworm

The cherry fruitworm, Grapholitha packardi, which bores into the fruit and feeds extensively below the surface, can be very damaging to blueberries. It causes injury within a few days of hatching. This pest overwinters as mature larvae in hibernating structures on the blueberry bushes, with larvae pupating in the spring. The adults appear in about a month (this varies by seasonal conditions). Adult moths mate and lay eggs on unripe fruit.

Cranberry fruitworm

Particularly troublesome in the eastern U.S., the cranberry fruitworm, Acrobasis vaccinii, affects both cranberries and blueberries. It overwinters in the soil as a fully grown larva and completes development in the spring. Adult moths mate and lay eggs from bloom until late green fruit, usually on unripe fruit. The eggs are very small and difficult to see. Young larvae enter the stem end of the fruit and feed on the flesh. They often web berries together with silk. A Michigan study reports that many parasites attack the cranberry fruitworm. The most common larval parasitoid is Campoletis The biocontrol Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) can effectively control cranberry fruitworm. Make sure to use a Bt product approved for organic production. The spinosad insecticide Entrust (Dow AgroScience) is registered for use against the cranberry fruitworm and cherry fruitworm on blueberries.

Leafroller

Leafrollers are the caterpillars of a few species of small moths. These pests roll leaves (hence their name) to use as shelter during their metamorphosis. Adults emerge, mate, lay eggs, and then repeat the cycle at least twice each year. Larvae feed on green berries, ripe berries, and leaves. Small numbers of leafrollers (fewer than 15 per plant) usually will not cause significant losses, unless they are feeding on blossoms.(Elsner and Whalon, 1998) The pesticide Bt var kurstaki can be applied when insects are feeding. Additional organically accepted strains of Bt can be effective at egg hatch, becoming less effective as larval size increases. Neemix, a product containing azadirachtin, acts as an insecticide and insect growth regulator affecting young (1st and 2nd instar) caterpillar pests. It is registered for leafrollers on organic blueberries with an R (regulated) status.

Pollination

Blueberries are insect-pollinated thus, increasing the number of pollinators can be quite beneficial. Blueberry flowers vary greatly in size and shape, depending on species.(Lyrene, 1994) Therefore, having a variety of pollinators like horn-faced bees, mason bees, carpenter bees, bumblebees, orchard bees, and others is important for good fruit set.

Serves As A Starter

This rustic-looking pie is a real favourite of mine. And, as we have done a piece on blueberries this month (page 40), I thought I would indulge you and myself. One of the 'superfoods', blueberries add a contrasting sweetness to the tart cooking apples making for a delicious combination. 125g 4.2oz blueberries 70-100g 2J2-3J2oz soft brown sugar 2 tbsp cornflour grated zest and juice .K orange pinch of cinnamon 375g pack ready-rolled shortcrust pastry 450g 1lb Bramley 1 apples, peeled, cored and thickly sliced beaten egg, to glaze custard or cream, to serve 1 Preheat the oven to 220C gas 7 and lightly grease a large baking sheet. Mix together the blueberries, sugar, cornflour, orange zest and juice and cinnamon. 3 Bake the pie for 25-30min until the pastry is golden and the apples and blueberries are tender. Transfer to a serving plate and allow to cool slightly.

Northern Highbush

The earliest to ripen and can produce big berries, so it has its place but it is a gawky grower and the berries are not the most flavoursome. 'Bluetta'. Early. Much more compact, and some people categorise it as a half-high blueberry. It has moderate crops of medium-size berries, of reasonable flavour and it has brilliant red autumn colour. 'Nui'. Early. A recently introduced variety from New Zealand, with enormous berries of excellent flavour. Bushes are lower growing and more open in habit than most varieties. 'Duke'. Early. It is easy to manage as a tidy sturdy bush with large berries with good flavour unless picked too soon. Good red gold autumn colour. berries with a super flavour. Tidy upright bush. Bright red autumn colour. 'Bluecrop'. Mid-season. Reliable, heavy crops make this the most successful variety, commercially. Big, well flavoured berries on big vigorous bushes. Bright red autumn colour. 'Bluegold'. Mid-season. Termed 'the mortgage lifter' by...

Foliar diseases

This fungus overwinters in mummified berries that have fallen to the ground. Sod or moss directly under the plant will contribute to spore production. To control this fungus, remove infested fruit (mummies) from the plant, rake and burn mummified berries, or cover the fallen berries with at least two inches of mulch. Cultivation during moist spring weather will destroy the spore-forming bodies. Strategies that lead to early pollination of newly open flowers may be useful in managing mummy berry disease in the field, since studies show that newly opened flowers are the most susceptible to infection and that fruit disease incidence is reduced if pollination occurs at least one day before infection.(Ngugi et al., 2002) The fungus survives the winter on dead twigs and in organic matter in the soil. The disease is more severe when excessive nitrogen has been used, where air circulation is poor, or when frost has injured blossoms. Varieties possessing tight fruit clusters are particularly...

Japanese beetle

The Japanese beetle larvae develop in pastures, lawns, and other types of turf, where they live in the soil. Adults emerge in early summer and feed on blueberry foliage and berries, causing injury to the berries, as well as decay from fruit-rotting pathogens. Some botanical insecticides such as rotenone can legally be used even on the day of harvest according to current label restrictions however, none have proven adequate for Japanese beetle control. Kaolin clay, available in the product Surround, can be used for suppression of the Japanese beetle only on blueberries that will be processed.

Grey Mold

Strawberry infection is most severe in well-protected, shaded areas of the plant where the humidity is higher and air movement is reduced. Berries resting on soil or touching another decayed berry or a dead leaf in dense foliage are most commonly affected. Often, the disease is not detected until berry picking time when due to harvesting, the handling of infected fruit will spread the fungus to healthy ones.

Planting

Plant your strawberries as early in the spring as the soil can be worked - normally early March to early April. Test for workability by digging a shovel full of soil and tightly squeezing a handful. Does the ball of soil break easily If so, it is ready to till. Then fill the rest of the hole and firm the earth around the plant. An inverted berry box or basket placed over the newly planted strawberries will prevent drying during the first few days.

With new plants

As soon as the strawberries are set into place, the soil in the rows and in the paths are covered with a 6 inch layer of mulch, such as grass clippings, straw, ground corncobs, pine needles, or chopped leaves. Plants are well-watered, and are left to develop runners through their growing season. If new plants have been set, all fruit buds should be removed, to permit all the strength to go into runner development.

Grapes

Best Dark Table Grapes Northwest

'Buffalo' This grape ripens in midseason. It has fairly large clusters of reddish black berries and is a good grape for wine or juice. Cane prune this vigorous vine. Performs well in the Pacific Northwest. Origin New York. 'Catawba' Good for wine or juice, this red grape is a popular commercial variety. It requires a long season to ripen and will do well in southerly areas with the longest growing seasons. Thinning will hasten development. Widely available. Origin North Carolina. 'Cayuga White' This variety bears white grapes in tight clusters. They are of good dessert quality. Origin New York. 'Concord' This late grape is so well known and widely planted that it hardly needs description. Often the standard of quality in judging American grapes, the dark blue slipskin berries are rich in the characteristic foxy flavor, which is retained after processing. Widely available. Origin Massachusetts. 'Delaware' The clusters and berries of this major wine grape are small, good for wine and...

Strawberry Products

Grow Strawberries in a Small Space The Berry Terrace is only 6 feet in diameter, but its ingenious 3-tier design gives you enough growing space for over a bushel of delicious, juicy berries. It assembles easily without tools and includes a sprinkler system what a great value Makes it easy to grow your own strawberries Includes sprinkler system Sturdy aluminum frames are self-locking. Grandmother herself never made cheesecake like this. We use only the sweetest, most flavorful strawberries and swirl them into the New York batter. Your cake is fresh-cooled and rushed from the bakery to your doorstep in a special cool-pack container to ensure freshness.

Insect Pests

Rabbiteye blueberries seem more tolerant of insect damage than highbush varieties. Although insect damage in blueberry plantings rarely reaches economic thresholds, regular monitoring by scouting and use of insect traps is advised. As discussed in the previous section, the use of beneficial insect habitats along crop field borders increases the presence of beneficial insects. If you are releasing purchased beneficial insects, these field-edge habitats will encourage them to remain and continue their life cycle in that location, helping reduce the pest populations. However, pests may also inhabit the field-edge habitats therefore, these habitats should be monitored along with the crop field. For additional information, request ATTRA's publications Biointensive Integrated Pest Management and Farmscaping to Enhance Biological Control. Depending on the locations of blueberry plantings and the insect pressure on them, sanitation, good cultural practices, vigorous plant growth, and natural...

Diseases

Is favorable for the disease to develop. Changing one of these three factors may prevent the disease from occurring. Pathogens responsible for blueberry diseases include fungi, bacteria, nematodes, and viruses. If these pathogens are present, manipulation of the environment and the host, to make it less susceptible, help to manage diseases on blueberries in a more sustainable manner. Check with your nursery and local Extension office to see whether known diseases are prevalent in your area. Then, plant tolerant or resistant blueberry varieties. Diseases common to blueberries include mummy berry, Botrytis blight (gray mold), stem blight, stem canker, phytophthora root rot, blueberry

Interrow Management

Blueberries do not have extensive root systems. As a result, clean cultivation of row middles to control weeds and to incorporate cover crops is less damaging to blueberries than it is to bramble fruits. Still, it is wise to till no deeper than 3 inches. Similarly, inter-row living mulches also called sodded middles generally are not competitive with the crop unless the inter-row species are aggressive and invade the rows. Fescue is commonly used in the Mid-South for sodded middles, as are several other grass species. In a Texas study, researchers demonstrated that the inter-row area could be used to produce significant quantities of mulch for rabbiteye blueberries. Successful winter crops of rye, rye-grass, and crimson clover, and a summer crop of pearl millet, were grown, cut, and windrowed onto the blueberry rows. Nitrogen proved the major limiting factor for non-leguminous cover crops low soil pH and browsing deer limited the biomass production of legumes. Pearl millet...

Choosing a Variety

Blueberries are members of the genus Vaccinium and belong to the Rhododendron family (Ericaceae). The Vaccinium genus contains several species of economic importance. The highbush Blueberries have fewer pest problems than most other fruits, offering an advantage for organic production. In some areas, most insect and disease problems can be controlled through cultural manipulation and proper cultivar selection. Weather fluctuations and geographic seasonal advantage are the major economic considerations for variety selection. The National Organic Standard is unclear on the precise requirements for planting stock when establishing a perennial crop like blueberries. Historically, non-organic transplants could be used to establish perennial crops. However, if conventional planting stock were used, most certifiers required that the plants be grown at least 12 months under organic conditions after transplanting before any harvested product could be marketed as organic. It is likely, but not...

Planting out blueberry bushes

Plant your blueberries during the winter months when the bushes are dormant. Space the bushes at 1.5 to 1.75 m intervals the bush will grow into a cone shape. Allow five metres between rows. The bush does develop slowly so you need patience. Dig a hole large enough to receive the root ball and set the plants slightly more deeply than they stood in the nursery containers. Blueberries are not self pollinating so more than one variety should be planted. Each variety will ripen at different times, spreading the harvest time over several weeks. Berries should appear in the second or third year and the bush matures in approximately seven years. During the first few years nip off the ends of the branches to encourage spreading. After approximately five years cut back the older wood to around 30 to 40 cm. This should again provide new wood and new shoots will emerge from ground level. Cut out any old twigs or dead wood which may appear. It is advisable to leave the bushes fairly open to avoid...

Site Selection and Soil Preparation

For best results, blueberries need a frost-free growing season of at least 140 days. Cultivars differ greatly in their susceptibility to winter injury. The condition of the wood also determines whether cold temperatures will injure the plants. Very vigorous plants that continue to grow late in the season are injured more easily than plants growing normally. Blueberries grow best on a sunny site in sandy peat soil, but they also do well in heavy soils if they are well-drained, aerated, and high in organic matter and receive adequate moisture. The most important requirement for growing blueberries is acidic soil. Few soils are naturally suitable for blueberry cultivation because the pH is above 5. If the pH of your soil is greater than 5 but less than 7, you can increase the acidity with applications of sulfur or acid peat. Soil acidity increases very slowly after applying sulfur, so it is important to test the soil and adjust the acidity and nutrient levels as needed the season before...

Choosing Cultivars

Cultivars differ in the size, color, and flavor of their berries and when they ripen. Cultivars are self-fertile, but planting at least two different cultivars improves pollination and increases berry size. The following cultivars are listed by harvest period, from early- to late-ripening blueberries. (For an updated list of nurseries selling blueberry plants, see www.hort.cornell.edu nursery.) Earliblue hardy in Zones 5 to 7. Berries are large with light blue skin and have a soft flesh and mild flavor. The fruit does not shatter (drop easily) from the bush, and it is resistant to cracking. Plants are vigorous, productive, upright, and well shaped. Blueray hardy in Zones 4b to 7. Berries ripen in early midseason and are crack resistant and very large with medium-light blue skin, firm flesh, and a strong flavor and aroma. The plants are upright, spreading, and consistently productive. It overproduces (produces too much fruit, weakening the plant) unless carefully pruned. Berkeley hardy...

Picking from the Berry Patch

Ew plants give you more bang for your buck than berries. Homegrown raspberries, strawberries, blueberries, and grapes take little space and return months of mouthwatering fruit salads, pies, pancakes, and fresh-eating goodness. Although less commonly grown, elderberries, currants, and some other small fruits make excellent landscape specimens, and turn out fruit fit for delicious jellies and other homemade treats. Because berries are perishable and the soft fruits are difficult to package and ship, supermarket berries are expensive and often past their prime. Also, conventionally grown grapes, raspberries, and strawberries are some of the most heavily sprayed food crops, making growing your own even more attractive. Some of these berries are easy to grow organically others present a real challenge. Choosing disease-resistant varieties, using the pest- and disease-control methods described in Part III, and planting correctly go a long way toward producing healthful, pesticide-free...

Ingredients and Supplies

Use the chart on the facing page to determine how much sulfur to add to lower the pH to about 5.5, which is low enough for blueberries and many other acid-lovers, Even if your soil isn't naturally acidic, you can grow acid-loving plants like azaleas, rhododendrons, or blueberries, says Dan Hartmann, general manager of Hartmann's Plantation in Grand Junction, Michigan. The secret is to add the right amount of sulfur to the soil to lower the pH. Dan explains how to figure out the right amount.

Money and Time Demands

Home fruit growers may find it more difficult and expensive to grow high-quality tree fruit than small-fruit plants, such as strawberries, grapes, blueberries, and brambles. One reason for this is that many different pests and diseases plague tree fruits. Summer rainfall and high relative humidity favor the growth and spread of disease-causing organisms. Insects also are a challenge. Power-driven spray equipment is not practical for a small home planting, so getting spray into the canopy of a large fruit tree is difficult. Dwarf fruit trees are one solution because pesticides can be applied with hand-operated equipment. Berries and grapes have definite advantages for home gardening. They require a minimum of space for the amount of fruit produced, and they bear at an early age. Their small stature makes disease and insect control easier and less expensive than with most tree fruits. But do not assume that diseases and insects cause less damage to small-fruit plants than to fruit trees.

Low SprayNoSpray Pest Management

Avoid planting fruits that require pesticides. In this regard, the apple cultivars Freedom and Liberty are superior to McIntosh, and blueberries are preferable to day-neutral strawberries. Trellis brambles and prune blueberries, brambles, currants, gooseberries, elderberries, and fruit trees annually to increase light penetration and air circulation. This can help reduce disease problems. Trellising also keeps fruit off the ground, reducing the likelihood of a dirty harvest. Harvest fruit as soon as it is ripe. Overripe fruit spoils, rots, and attracts insects.

Grow Shrubs And Trees

Whether it's bayberry's (Myrica pensy vanica) small blue berries, juniper's (Juniperus) sheltering foliage or privet's (Ligustrum) insect-rich leaf litter, shrubs give birds something to sing about. They also offer nesting sites, sleeping perches and caches of nest-building twigs. Holly ( ex) and firethorn (Pyracantha coccinea) offer both prickly cover and food. Trees such as oak (Quercus) summon nest-building tanagers, while dogwood (Cornus) offers fall berries for Eastern bluebirds.

Food Glorious Food Growing Your Own Veggies

Or the cost of a packet of seeds, you can have your own, homegrown produce. The requirements are simple good soil, moisture, and full sun. This type of gardening is usually called vegetable gardening, even though it also involves growing items that are technically fruit, such as tomatoes and melons (Chapter 15 can fill you in on growing traditional fruits and berries). Growing your own produce or vegetables, as it were can be fun and fairly easy for the beginner gardener. This chapter gives you the basics. If you want even more information, please check out Vegetable Gardening For Dummies (Wiley Publishing, Inc.).

Diseases and Pests

Visit www.hort.cornell.edu diagnostic for assistance in diagnosing problems with currants and gooseberries. Currant aphids, leaf spot, and powdery mildew are the most common problems that plague currant and gooseberry plantings. All disfigure or damage the leaves and can cause defoliation. Powdery mildew. This fungal disease is a problem particularly on European gooseberries. In early summer a whitish, powdery growth appears on the surface of leaves, shoots, and branch tips. If left unchecked, the fungus can progress to the berries themselves. Later in the summer, the growth may turn from white to brown. Warm, humid conditions and poor air circulation favor powdery mildew. Prune and dispose of infected branch and shoot tips in early spring. Some home gardeners are experimenting with trellising gooseberries because it makes disease management and harvesting easier (see Figure 25). Certain horticultural oils (check labels) applied at the first sign of powdery mildew can prevent its...

An integrated landscape

As an organic gardener, you're uniquely positioned to create integrated landscapes in which edibles and ornamentals share garden space. Why You don't have to worry about pesticides sprayed on lawns and flowers contaminating your food plants. Why not use blueberry bushes as foundation plants They're attractive and low maintenance, and the foliage turns a beautiful crimson in fall. Best of all, you can step out your door to a harvest of juicy berries. Rainbow Swiss chard, which has striking orange, pink, red, and yellow stems, is a natural in flower beds and offers a nutritious harvest, too.

Letting vines feed you too

Everyone knows about the grapevine, but many other vines also produce edible fruits, including passion fruit kiwi and cold-hardy arctic kiwi, berries, hops, and chayote. Don't forget annual vines such as peas, beans, squash, and melons. Food-bearing vines can grow in places where fruit trees and vegetable beds would never fit, and they often put the fruit at a nice pickable level to eliminate stooping and climbing.

Diseases and Insects

This fungal disease can cause complete crop loss in warm, humid climates. All green tissues can be infected. Leaves are susceptible for about one week after they unfold. When infected, they develop brown circular lesions, and within a few days black spherical spore-producing bodies form within the lesions. Leaf stem infection causes the leaves to wilt. Shoots display large, black elliptical lesions, weakening them and making them easily broken by wind. Berries are susceptible from bloom until they begin to ripen, and fruit infection can result in substantial loss. An infected berry first appears light brown, and then black spore-producing bodies develop on its surface. Later, the berries shrivel and turn hard and black to become so-called mummies. Downy mildew. This fungus can infect all green, actively growing parts of the vine. Leaves develop yellowish green lesions on their upper surfaces 7 to 12 days after infection. As lesions expand, the affected areas become brown,...

Choosing Plants To Provide Dense Shade

Comments One of the most beautiful and useful flowering trees, the dogwood offers spring bloom, good summer foliage, dark red autumn color, berries, and, with its horizontal branches and crownlike buds, winter interest. Red and pink varieties are available. Japanese dogwood Cornus kousa) blooms later with pointed bracts. The other dogwoods all are good ornamentals with attractive foliage and berries, but inconspicuous flowers.

Pest and disease control

Animals such as possums, rabbits, kangaroos, wallabies and wombats are deterred by fencing. Growers with severe possum attack find it necessary to protect all plantings with small-mesh wire enclosures or fully enclosed shade structures. Protecting ripe berries with netting prevents parrots from destroying seed production. Anchoring wire mesh firmly across the surface of planted areas prevents lyre bird problems.

Planting and Early Care

No matter which planting system you use, plant strawberries as soon as possible in the spring (fall planting is not recommended in the Northeast). Prepare soil the season before planting to speed soil warming and minimize the need to work the ground before planting. If the soil is still frozen when your plants arrive, refrigerate them until the ground has thawed. Plant strawberries in early spring. Several weeks after planting, the plants will begin to flower from buds formed within the crown the preceding fall. If you are using the matted-row system, remove these flowers to prevent fruiting and encourage runners. Berries on first-year plants rob the plants of energy necessary for growth, runner production, and winter survival. Although some strawberry cultivars produce only one flower cluster per plant, others produce several sets, so you may need to check the planting and remove flowers several times.

Dealing with fruit pests

Birds These flying scavengers adore berries and strike with precise timing, at the peak of ripe perfection. Don't allow this pilfering Cover the plants after flowering is over (so you don't thwart pollination) but before green fruit begins to ripen. Use plastic netting, cheesecloth, or anything that covers the plants but still lets in light, air, and water. For

Boundless Energy and Endless Ideas

This non-native adoptee curves gracefully over the front entrance to the Zimmerman's house. On a fine summer day, it's loaded with scented white flowers. The birds love the red berries in the fall, Carleen says. Last year we had eight robins in there cleaning it up, all at the same time.

Tomato peach and strawberry salad

1 Cut the tomatoes in half. (If using cherry tomatoes, cut them into halves or quarters, if large.) Halve and pit the peaches, and cut into wedges. Halve the strawberries, discarding the hulls. 2 Put the tomatoes, peaches, and strawberries in a glass or ceramic serving dish. Add olive oil and balsamic vinegar. Season with salt and plenty of black pepper, and add the shredded mint. Toss gently until the fruit is evenly coated with the dressing. Serve immediately. 4-6 ripe tomatoes, about l2oz-llb (350-450g) 3 ripe peaches l5 strawberries dash of extra virgin olive oil dash of balsamic vinegar handful of fresh mint leaves,

Herbaceous perennials

Herbaceous perennials are plants that live for more than two years. Each autumn the aboveground parts die back. If a perennial is hardy in your region, the roots remain alive and resprout the following spring. Many flowers and herbs are herbaceous perennials, as are a few familiar vegetables and fruits, such as asparagus, horseradish, and strawberries. Perennial herbs include thyme, oregano, and sage. The thousands of perennial flowers include coneflower, black-eyed Susan, and peony. Perennial plants are sometimes started from seed but are more commonly sold growing in containers or as bare-root plants. Bare-root plants are sold during their dormant season and are packaged without soil around their roots. Instead, the roots are packed in moist newspaper or sawdust. Asparagus and strawberries are commonly sold in bare-root condition.

Managing Your Planting

Because of their shallow root systems, keeping strawberries well watered is extremely important. There is a tendency to overfertilize strawberries when actually a lack of water is holding back yields. underwater your When overnight frost threatens blooming plants, cover them with row cov-strawberries. ers or use sprinklers to deliver a fine mist over the planting. Ice that forms Remove the mulch in early spring around the end of March to mid-April, after the threat of severely cold weather has passed. Strawberries are evergreen. The plants that have overwintered will have green leaves, and they will begin photosynthesizing when you remove the mulch and expose them to the sun. Place the mulch between the rows to help smother weeds and to keep mud from splashing onto the fruit. In the Northeast strawberries typically flower in May and produce fruit in early June through early July (depending on the cultivar and weather). Watch the flowers for signs of insect damage,...

Examining the types of fruits

Another thing you might want to consider when looking at types of fruit is how long you have to wait before getting a yield. For instance, groundcovering fruits are annuals, at least in a climate that has frost, while strawberries are perennials, but both produce fruit the first year. Most shrub fruits take two or three years to yield substantial amounts of fruit. Fruit trees take a few to several years to bear, depending on variety and type of rootstock they're on. Dwarf fruit trees tend to bear sooner, within 3 years, while trees on standard root-stocks can take 4 or more years.

The Apparent Conflict between Resistance and both Yield and Quality

The first refutation is the general principle that correlation is not proof. When the correlation is imperfect, the contention is even less convincing. There are plenty of examples of cultivars with both good yields and quality as well as good resistances. Some wild plants have qualities that exceed those of cultivars. The taste of wild strawberries, for example, is far superior to that of the high-yielding, large-fruited, cultivated varieties. Secondly, some cultivars have both high quality and high resistance. The classic wine grapes, for example, have qualities that cannot be surpassed and they had high levels of resistance to all their old-encounter parasites. It was not until the introduction of new-encounter parasites from America to Europe, in the nineteenth century, that grape parasites became seriously damaging. Indeed, the classic wine grapes were cultivated for centuries without any need for crop protection chemicals. The same can be said for other antique clones, such as...

Legalities of Growing

In the early 1900s the federal and state governments outlawed the growing of currants and gooseberries to prevent the spread of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola). This fungal disease attacks both Ribes and white pines, which must live in close proximity for the blister rust fungus to complete its life cycle. Black currants (Ribes nigrum) and white pines (Pinus strobus) are extremely susceptible, and red currants and gooseberries exhibit varying degrees of susceptibility. Although the federal ban was rescinded in 1966, some northern states, including New York, still prohibit the planting or cultivation of black currants. Some black currant types, such as the cultivars Consort, Crusader, and Titania, are hybrids that are resistant to the blister rust fungus. They can be planted in areas where other currants and gooseberries are permitted. Some towns and counties, however, restrict the planting of any Ribes species, so it is best to check with your local Cornell Cooperative...

Pruning an established bush

Each summer, in late June to early July, prune all laterals (that is, the current season's growth) back to five leaves. This opens up the bush and removes any mildew and aphids at the tips of the shoots. Do not prune gooseberries earlier because this might induce secondary growth. Do not prune the leaders unless they are affected by aphids or mildew.

Selecting healthy plants

It is important to buy only certified stock, wherever possible, to ensure the plants are virus-free and healthy. Healthy plants should last at least ten years before starting to degenerate from virus infection. When this occurs, remove the plants and start a new row in soil that has not grown raspberries or other Rubus species before. Alternatively, re-soil over an area 2 ft wide by 1 ft deep. The cultural requirements (soil preparation, planting, spacing, initial pruning and feeding) are the same as for the summer-bearing kind. Use the parallel wire method of support described on page 25. The fruits are produced when the weather is becoming cooler, so they are best planted in the sunniest position possible, otherwise too few raspberries may ripen before the first frosts arrive. Raspberries 4 Black and purple raspberries ,are generally known under the name of black raspberry, just as red and yellow raspberries are usually known as red raspberries. They are also closely related to the...

Getting the lowdown on chill factors

You can find many named cultivars (cultivated varieties) within each type of fruit, and you need to choose one suitable to your climate and growing conditions. Some fruit plants are obviously better-adapted to certain climates than others. Avocados don't work as a crop in cold regions some pears and raspberries are better in mild areas, and others are adapted to Northern climes most apples (but not all) like to be cold and North, too. Although you may be able to push your boundaries or cheat a bit in your garden with smaller plants such as perennials, coddling a more substantial resident such as big bush, vine, or tree isn't always practical. (Check out Chapter 3 for info on growing seasons and plant hardiness zones.)

Vegetative propagation material

Fusarium Narcissus

Vegetative propagation material is used in all areas of horticulture, such as bulbs (tulips and onions), tubers (dahlias and potatoes), runners (strawberries), cuttings (chrysanthemums and many trees and shrubs) and graft scions in trees. The increase of nematodes, viruses, fungi and bacteria by vegetative propagation is a particular problem, since the organisms are inside the plant tissues, and since the plant tissues are sensitive to any drastic control measures.

Gibberellic Acid Sprays

Seeds cause an increase in the size of grape berries by producing growth-stimulating hormones including gibberellins. Therefore, seedless grape berries are typically small in their natural condition. GA sprays often dramatically increase the size of seedless grape berries, presumably because they partially substitute for the natural production of gibberellins from seeds. A spray of GA at midbloom not only may increase berry size but in some varieties can also reduce the number of berries that set per cluster. However, the optimum time for a single application of GA to increase berry size is often at fruit set, when the berries are 4 to 5 mm in diameter (Fig. 22). Commercial applications of GA to increase berry size often involve two or more applications after fruit set, but most of the berry-sizing benefit is obtained by a single application. Trial applications of GA to seedless varieties without a history of GA use should be timed at fruit set (Fig. 22). A concentration of 50 ppm is...

Tarsonemid mite Tarsonemus pallidus

Distortion of developing leaves and flowers resulting from small feeding holes and injected toxins are the main symptom of this pest. This may happen to such an extent that leaves and petals are stunted and misshapen, and flowers may not open properly. Plant species affected are Amaranthus, Fuchsia, pelargonium and cyclamen (the pest is sometimes referred to as 'cyclamen mite') A closely related but distinct strain is found on strawberries.

Nutrient film technique NFT

Manual Hydroponics

Rockwool slabs are a very successful way of growing which lend themselves to a modular system. It is widely used for a range of commercial crops, such as tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, melons, lettuce, carnations, roses, orchids and strawberries, in protected culture. It is not biodegradable so the vast quantity of rockwool now utilized has produced a serious disposal problem. The slabs can be used successfully several times, if sterilized on each occasion, but eventually they lose their structure. Tearing them up and incorporating them in composts or soils can deal with a limited amount, but far more can now be recycled in the production of new slabs.

Leatherjacket Tipula paludosa

This is an underground pest which is a natural inhabitant of grassland and causes most problems on golf greens. After ploughing up of grassland, leatherjackets may also cause damage to the crops such as potatoes, cabbages, lettuce and strawberries. This pest is particularly damaging in prolonged wet periods when the roots of young or succulent crops may be killed off. Occasionally lower leaves may be eaten.

Pangaeus bilineatus Say Hemiptera Cydnidae

Burrowing bug is known as an occasional pest of pepper, spinach, strawberries, peanut, cotton, sugarcane and wheat. Crops are rarely reported to be damaged, though there are several records of injury to peanut in Texas other cydnids are also implicated, with P. bilineatus the most numerous pest.

Plant Pests and Their Control

Pest Diagram For Small Plan

In a wet season slugs may be a real problem. They resemble snails without shells, have soft bodies and are coated with a slimy substance. Slugs hide during daylight hours and move about at night. They have voracious appetites and feed on most garden plants. Good air circulation between plants arid exposure to sunlight reduce slug problems. Slugs are particularly troublesome to plants with large leaves and to plants with dense foliage close to the ground, such as strawberries. During the daytime slugs can be found under boards and large leaves, and in mulch material. Occasionally, boards are used to trap slugs. By turning the boards over, the slugs can be killed by dusting them with lime. Stale beer is also used to attract slugs. A shallow pan of beer is sunk in the ground to its rim. Slugs are attracted by the beer, fall in, and are drowned. Sometimes in a wet year when slugs are numerous, slug baits are used to attract and kill the slugs. Read the label to see if the bait is safe for...

Botanical Nomenclature

Structure Calyx Flower

There are no rules for establishing common names of plants. Common names can be highly misleading and may erroneously suggest toxicity or the lack of toxicity. For example, a plant known as a pepper plant could be the sweet pepper commonly eaten as a vegetable (Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum) or one of the extremely hot, virtually inedible peppers (particularly when eaten in quantity and certainly depending on the person's palate) used as a decorative houseplant in that same species but containing significant quantities of capsaicin or the spice plant from which we derive black pepper (Piper nigrum) or the pepper bush (Leucothoe species) containing grayanotoxins or the pepper tree (Schinus molle) with triterpene-containing berries or any number of other species with pepper as part of its common name. Another

Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder Orthoptera Gryllotalpidae

Mole Patterns

Mole crickets are omnivorous, feeding on animal as well as plant material. Several studies have indicated that when provided with grass or collected from grass-dominated habitats, southern mole cricket is less damaging than tawny mole cricket. Southern mole cricket feeds mostly on other insects, whereas tawny mole cricket is principally herbivorous (Matheny, 1981 Matheny et al., 1981 Walker and Ngo, 1982). Both species are associated with tomato and strawberry fields (Schuster and Price, 1992). Among vegetable crops reported to be injured are beet, cabbage, cantaloupe, carrot, cauliflower, collards, eggplant, kale, lettuce, onion, pepper, potato, spinach, sweet potato, tomato, and turnip. Other plants injured include chufa, turf, and pasture grasses, peanut, strawberries, sugar cane, tobacco, and such flowers as coleus, chrysanthemum, and gypsophila. Among the turf grasses, bahiagrass and Bermudagrass are commonly injured by tawny mole cricket, whereas St. Augustine grass...

Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann Diptera Tephritidae

Ceratitis Capitata Distribution

This insect has been known to develop successfully in the fruit of over 400 plants from numerous plant families, including several wild and ornamental plants that produce small berries. The most common North American host plants, however, are such stone, pome, and citrus fruits as almond, apple, apricot, nectarine, peach, pear, plum, grapefruit, orange, and tangerine. Other fruits at risk are fig, guava, grape, kumquat, loquat, lychee, passion fruit, quince, and persimmon. In general, thin-skinned, ripe fruits are preferred by ovipositing females. If the skin is cracked, other fruits such as avocado, banana, and papaya are attacked. Mediterranean fruit fly is not usually considered as a serious vegetable pest, but occasionally vegetables are attacked, and among those known to be hosts are eggplant, pepper, and tomato. Strawberry also is reported as a host.

Crioceris duodecimpunctata Linnaeus Coleoptera Chrysomelidae

Bruchus Pisorum Linn

This species is very selective in its host preference, attacking only asparagus. It is most commonly observed on wild and home-garden plants, rarely attaining high densities in commercial plantings. The larvae feed only within berries. Natural Enemies. Little is known concerning the natural enemies of spotted asparagus beetle. Capinera (1974b) was unable to identify significant natural enemies in Massachusetts, but noted that resource availability (lack of berries for the larvae) might be a key factor in regulating insect densities. Ground beetles (Coleoptera Carabidae) may take a toll on larvae searching the foliage for berries or droping to the ground to pupate, but this has not been measured. The asparagus beetle egg parasitoid, Tetrastichus asparagi Crawford (Hymenoptera Eulophidae) has been reported in the literature as a parasite of spotted asparagus beetle, but this is an error. A related species, Tetrastichus crioceridis Graham, attacks spotted asparagus beetle...

How Much Sulfur to

The amount of sulfur you need to add to your soil to keep acid-loving plants like blueberries happy depends on the type of soil in your garden, as well as the pH you start with. Sandy soils typically need less sulfur to lower pH levels, while loam and clay soils take more sullur to change their pH. tf you're Blackberries and raspberries Blueberries Gooseberries Strawberries

Vine weevil Otiorhyncus sulcatus

Vine Weevil Life Cycle

The larva stage is the most damaging, eating away roots of crops such as cyclamen and begonias in greenhouses, primulas, strawberries, young conifers and vines outdoors, causing above-ground symptoms similar to root diseases such as vascular wilt. Close inspection of the plant's root zone will, however, quickly show the unmistakable white grubs (see Figure 14.18). The adults may eat out neat holes or leaf edges of the foliage of hosts such as rhododendron, raspberry and grapes, and many herbaceous perennials (see Figure 14.18). Several related species, e.g. the clay-coloured weevil (Otiorhyncus singularis) cause similar damage to that of the vine weevil.

The Terrible Time Of

But one thing this may have taught is that you can't run away from systems. Holing up in two acres out in the New England forests isn't going to get you out of the system unless you are into a seed-growing operation and know exactly what you're doing. Most people do not. If you are training yourself to be a good gardener, there are still certain areas you just haven't got into, and seed growing is one of them. In one valley in Tasmania, among a group of hippies living there, you might find 50 Ph.D.s. Most of them are sitting home knitting or weaving or running around getting blackberries, just leaving it to the really ruthless people to get on with what they are doing. We must involve all our skills to organize life forces, not just a few.

Choosing Plants To Provide Filtered Shade

Comments Hardy and slow growing, ginkgo trees are one of the oldest plants in cultivation. They are ideal as lawn or street trees because they're pest free, widely adaptable, and tolerant of smoke and pollution. Provide extra watering after planting. The male tree is neater berries have a rancid odor when crushed. Fan-shaped leaves turn golden yellow in autumn and all fall at once, making raking a one-time affair.

Wireworm Agriotes lineatus

This beetle species is commonly found in grassland, but will attack most crops. Turf grass may be eaten away by the larvae (wireworms) resulting in dry areas of grass. The pest also bores through potatoes to produce characteristic narrow tunnels, while in onions, brassicas and strawberries the roots are eaten. In tomatoes, the larvae bore into the hollow stem.

Stem and bulb eelworm Ditylenchusdipsaci

This species attacks many plants, e.g. narcissus, onions, beans and strawberries. Several strains are known, but their host ranges are not fully defined. The 1 mm long nematodes enter plant material and breed continuously, often with thousands of individuals in one

Removal of infected plant material

Whiteflies Apple Trees

With rapid-increase problems, such as peach-potato aphid and white rust of chrysanthemum fungus in greenhouses, removal of affected leaves is practicable in the early stages of the problem, but becomes progressively unmanageable after the pest or disease has increased and dispersed throughout the plants. Slow-increase problems, such as Fusarium wilt disease on tomatoes or carnations and vine weevil larvae found damaging roots of plants such as primulas and begonias, may be removed throughout the crop cycle, but the infected roots and soil must be carefully placed in a bag to prevent dispersal of the problem. In commercial outdoor production, labour costs usually prevent such removal during the growing season. However, removal is achieved chemically in some situations. The destruction of blight-infected potato foliage with herbicide such as diquat prior to harvest reduces infection of the tubers. Burning of post-harvest leaf material and lifting of root debris after harvest (against...

The bullfinch Pyrrhulapyrrhula

From April to September the bird progressively feeds on seeds of wild plants, e.g. chickweed, buttercup, dock, fat hen and blackberry. From September to April, the species forms small flocks that, in addition to feeding on buds and seeds of wild species, e.g. docks, willow, oak and hawthorn, turn their attention to buds of soft and top fruit. Gooseberries are attacked from November to January, apples from February to April and blackcurrants from March to April. The birds are shy, preferring to forage on the edges of orchards, but as winter advances they become bolder, moving towards the more central trees and bushes. The birds nip buds out at the rate of about 30 per minute, eating the central meristem tissues. Leaf, flower and fruit development may thus be seriously reduced, and since in some plums and gooseberries there is no regeneration of fruiting points, damage may be seen several years after attack.

Chrysanthemum eelworm Aphelenchoidesritzemabosi

The first symptom is blotching and purpling of the leaves, which spreads and becomes a dead brown, V-shaped area between the veins. The lower leaves are worst affected. When buds are infested, the resulting leaves may be misshapen. In addition to chrysanthemum, this nematode also attacks Saintpaulia and strawberries.

Harvest And Postharvest

Commercially grown fruits may be stored in controlled environments with a higher ratio of carbon dioxide than found in the air to inhibit ripening. These must be specialized rooms that are entered wearing protective equipment because the air is not healthy to breathe. Ethylene is a gas used to induce ripening in apples, tomatoes, and bananas. It is also used to harvest commercially grown pineapples, blackberries, blueberries, and cherries. Rotten apples produce high amounts of ethylene and can cause other fruits that are stored

A nicnriuncj el a d pi

From mid-1980 through mid-1983, most of the food my household ate was vegetables, supplemented by some apples from our old orchard and helped out at breakfast most mornings by blackberries, picked during high summer, stored in a rust-speckled old chest freezer in the woodshed, and blended with frozen bananas, bought as overripe* at super bargain prices Money was so tight that when the germination percentage of the seed com panys bean seeds dropped below what was ethical to sell. Id bring those seed up to the house and wed cook them. The food we purchased during those years was the odd bit of brown rice or millet, sometimes a chunk of ordir.un Cheese, some real Jersey butter or milk from the nun down the toad, ol.u o. and vinegar for salad dressings, and in winter, oranges or grapefruit no --l-en. but only by the hill box and only when ally cheap. 1 bough' enou, gasoline to go to town twice a month, paid the land taxes, purely , the bit of clothing at the Salvation Army, bough, a chunk...

Imported currant worm

This is the most serious insect pest of currants and gooseberries, with the latter being the favored host. Foliage is consumed by several small, spotted, caterpillar-like larvae. The adults are sawflies about the size of a house fly. There are two generations per year, with damage occurring in spring and again in late summer.

Red and white currants

The smooth-skinned, glistening red berries are attractive and ideal for jelly, pies, juice and for wine making. The white currant is a mutation or sport of the red currant and for cultural purposes is treated in exactly the same way. The berries, of somewhat milder flavor than the red, are also useful for jelly and for wine making. Soil and situation Ideally, the soil should be neutral to slightly acid (about pH 6.7). Red and white currants are less tolerant of poor drainage than the black currant but, provided the soil is reasonably well drained and not deficient in potash, they are tolerant of a wide range of conditions. not drip on the plants. They grow in zones , 3-8. A sunny position is best if the berries are to acquire their full flavor. The site should be sheltered but not a frost pocket. Soil preparation Prepare the soil in the fall or late winter by clearing away all weeds. Apply a light dressing of well-rotted manure or compost about 11 2 in thick over the whole area. If...

Removal of dead flowers

Length Xanthrophyll

Pigments are substances that are capable of absorbing light they also reflect certain wavelengths of light which determine the colour of the pigment. In the actively growing plant, chlorophyll, which reflects mainly green light, is produced in considerable amounts, and therefore the plant, especially the leaves, appears predominantly green. Other pigments are present e.g. the carotenoids (yellow) and xanthophylls (red), but usually the quantities are so small as to be masked by the chlorophyll. In some species, e.g. copper beech (Fagus sylvat-ica) other pigments predominate, masking chlorophyll. These pigments also occur in many species of deciduous plants at the end of the growing season, when chlorophyll synthesis ceases prior to the abscission of the leaves. Many colours are displayed in the leaves at this time in such species as Acer platanoides, turning gold and red, Prunus cerasifera 'Pissardii' with light purple leaves, European larch with yellow leaves, Virginia creeper...