Stink Bug Control Secrets Revealed

Stink Bug Armageddon

Stink Bug Armageddon Is A Step By Step Guide On How To Get Rid Of Stink Bugs Here's what this guide will provide: A clear understanding of why you have stink bugs in your home and how to identify problem areas. Discover how stink bugs get in your home and the 7 easiest and most effective things you can do to stop them. 5 of the best ways to catch and dispose of stink bugs without getting their stinkiness sprayed all over the place. Discover 4 of the best homemade stink bugs traps known to mankind! Cheap, easy to make, and highly effective and decimating stink bug infestations. Understand the stink bug life cycle and what you can do to break it in and around your home. Learn why some of the common stink bug control advice given online should be avoided at all costs! Let me show you how to get rid of stink bugs in hard to reach places. Make your efforts permanent by following 3 simple steps to stink bug proofing your home (and you'll also prevent lots of other bug infestations as well) Fully illustrated with lots of pictures and links to online videos. Read more here...

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Chlorochroa uhleri Stl Hemiptera Pentatomidae

Stem Plant With Seed Heads Alabama

These stink bugs are native to western North America. Say stink bug is found throughout the west, from Montana and eastern Texas west to Caifornia and British Columbia. It has also been taken in Arkansas, which seems to be unusually far east for this species. Similarly, Uhler stink bug is found from the Saskatchewan and the Dakotas, Nebraska and New Mexico west to the Pacific Ocean. Host Plants. Say and Uhler stink bugs feed on the fruit and seeds of many plants. They are known principally as a pest of grains, and prefer to attack the seed head of such crops as alfalfa, barley, oat, rye, and Natural Enemies. Several parasitoids are known. An egg parasitoid, Telenomus utahensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera Scelionidae), is an important mortality factor of Say stink bug, sometimes causing 60 mortality or greater late in the season (Jubb and Watson, 1971a,b). When this wasp discovers an egg clutch, few if any eggs escape parasitism. Several generations of the parasitoid occur...

Acrosternum hilare Say Hemiptera Pentatomidae

Hemiptera Nymph

It is less damaging, and therefore less well-known than southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (Linnaeus). Although green stink bug is readily confused with southern green stink bug, the distribution of this latter species is limited principally to the southeastern states. Host Plants. Green stink bug has a wide host range, though it is known principally as a pest of soybean and tree fruit. Among vegetables it has been observed to feed upon are asparagus, cabbage, corn, cowpea, cucumber, eggplant, lima bean, okra, mustard, pea, pepper, squash, snap bean, tomato, and turnip. Beans, particularly lima bean, are often damaged. Other common hosts are fruit such as apple, apricot, blackberry, cherry, elderberry, grape, mulberry, orange, pear, and strawberry trees such as ash, basswood, black cherry, black locust, dogwood, hackberry, honey locust, holly, maple, and redbud and field crops such as alfalfa, cotton, and soybean. Green stink bug may also be found on such...

Euschistus variolarius Palisot de Beauvois Hemiptera Pentatomidae

Euschistus Pronotum

Onespotted stink bug is native to North America. It is distributed widely in the United Natural Enemies. Onespotted stink bug is parasitized by Telenomus and Trissolcus spp. (Hymenoptera Scelionidae) and several flies, including Gymnosoma fuliginosum Robineau-Desvoidy, Trichopoda pennipes (Fabricius), Cylindromyia binotata (Bigot), C. fumipennis (Bigot), Gymnoclytia occidua (Walker), Cistogaster immaculata Macquart, and Euthera tentatrix Loew (all Diptera Tachinidae) (McPherson, 1982). Yeargan (1979) studied mortality of brown stink bug eggs in Kentucky, and reported that when egg masses were distributed in crops, about 50 were parasitized,13 were destroyed by predators, and 25 failed to hatch probably due to undetectable natural enemy feeding. When stink bugs were allowed to oviposit naturally on plants 71 were parasitized, 26 were destroyed by predators, and 1 failed to hatch. Natural enemies clearly have the potential to destroy a high proportion of stink bug eggs....

Southern Green Stink Bug Nezara viridula Linnaeus Hemiptera Pentatomidae

The Body Parts Stink Bug

Southern green stink bug has a world-wide distribution. It is found on all continents where agriculture is practiced, but absent or rare from regions with cold winters. Its origin is probably eastern Africa, and was first observed in the western hemisphere in 1798. Distribution in North America is limited primarily to the southeastern United States Virginia to Florida in the east, to Ohio and Arkansas in the midwest, and to Texas in the southwest. However, it has become established in Hawaii (in 1961) and California (in 1986), and occasional specimens have been found elsewhere outside the generally infested southeast. Southern green stink bug is a strong flier, and its range is expanding in many parts of the world. Host Plants. The host range of this insect includes over 30 families of plants, though it shows a preference for legumes and crucifers. Preference among plants varies during the year, with this stink bug most attracted to plants that are producing pods or...

Euschistus conspersus Uhler Hemiptera Pentatomidae

Consperse stink bug occurs in western North America from British Columbia and Idaho south to California and Nevada. It is a native species. Host Plants. Consperse stink bug damages vegetable and fruit crops. Known principally as pest of tomato, it also feeds on apple, apricot, blackberry, fig, loganberry, peach, pear, plum, and raspberry. It also is found occasionally in alfalfa, barley, cotton, sorghum, and sugarbeet. Among the numerous weeds known to support consperse stink bug are bracken fern, Pteridium aquilinum dock, Rumex sp. horehound, Marrubium sp. mallow, Malva sp. mullein, Verbascum sp. plantain, Plantago sp. mustard, Brassica sp. and the thistles Cirsium occidentale and C. mohavense. Natural Enemies. Stink bug eggs are parasitized by Trissolcus and Telenomus (Hymenoptera Scelioni-dae). The level of parasitism varies greatly, and the first generation is typically lightly parasitized. Digger wasps, Dryudella sp. (Hymenoptera Sphecidae), prey on nymphs, and...

Hemiptera Pentatomidae

This species has a wide host range. Among the vegetables attacked are bean, cabbage, corn, cowpea, okra, pea, pepper, squash, and tomato. Other crops that serve as hosts include such field crops as alfalfa, clover, cotton, lespedeza, oat, soybean, sweet clover, and timothy, and such fruit crops as apple, citrus, peach, pear, raspberry, and tobacco. Some of the weeds fed upon by brown stink bug are cocklebur, Xanthium sp. curly dock, Rumex sp. flea-bane, Erigeron annuus goldenrod, Solidago sp. horse-weed, Erigeron canadensis ragweed, Ambrosia sp. mullein, Verbascum thapsus pigweed, Amaranthus sp. prickly lettuce, Lactuca scariola yellow thistle, Cirsium horridulum and Canada thistle, Cirsium arvense. Mullein is reported to be especially important as it is present early in the season before many other hosts are available. Natural Enemies. Brown stink bug is parasitized by Telenomus and Trissolcus spp. (Hymenoptera Sce-lionidae), Hexacladia smithi Ashmead (Hymenoptera...

Pests Feeding Externally on Leaves or Stems

Tuber, western black, western potato Flies European crane Leaf beetles Banded and spotted cucumber Loopers Bilobed, soybean Maggots Seedcorn Millipedes Garden Other bugs False chinch Other caterpillars Whitelined sphinx Pillbug Common Springtail Garden Stink bugs Harlequin, Say Thrips Bean, melon and western flower Webworm Alfalfa, beet, garden celery and false celery

Crioceris asparagi Linnaeus Coleoptera Chrysomelidae

Crioceris Asparagi Pupa

Several general predators and parasitoids are known from asparagus beetles. The lady beetles Coleomegilla maculata Mulsant and Hippo-damia convergens Guerin-Meneville, Coccinella transver-soguttata Brown, and Coccinella novemnotata Herbst (all Coleoptera Coccindellidae) feed on eggs and larvae. Larvae also are attacked by the stink bugs, Perillus bio-culatus Fabricius and Stiretrus anchorago (Fabricius) (both Hemiptera Pentatomidae) and the assassin bugs, Sinea sp., Pselliopus sp., and Arilus cristatus (Linnaeus) (all Hemiptera Reduviidae).

Predator And Parasitic Insects

Stomach Poison Insects

You can often identify predacious beetles by sight. If a beetle's jaws are short and chunky, it is a plant eater. If the jaws are long and pointed with sharp cutting edges, it destroys other insects. Although most true bugs are destructive, a few are extremely helpful. Pirate bugs feed on small insects and mites. Some stink bugs are predacious on the Colorado potato beetle. And assassin bugs attack Japanese beetles and other harmful insects.

Corimelaena pulicaria Germar Hemiptera Thyreocoridae

Corimelaena Pulicaria

The biology of this insect is poorly documented. Partial life histories were provided by Riley (1870a) and Davis (1893). McPherson (1982) gave a good summary, especially of host-plant records, and keys for identification. A key to distinguish stink bugs (including Negro bug) commonly affecting vegetables also is found in Appendix A.

Gargaphia solani Heidemann Hemiptera Tingidae

Tingidae Key

Several common predators have been observed to attack eggplant lace bug, among them the lady beetles Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville and Coleomegilla maculata De Geer (Coleoptera Coccinellidae) the spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Hemiptera Pentatomidae) the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera Anthocoridae) and various spiders.

Anomis erosa Hobner Lepidoptera Noctuidae

The natural enemies of okra caterpillar are mostly generalists that attack other caterpillars. For example, paper wasps, Polistes spp. (Hymenoptera Vespidae) are commonly feed on larvae, as do ground beetles (Coleoptera Carabidae), stink bugs (Hemiptera Pentatomidae), and assassin bugs (Hemiptera Reduviidae). Parasitoids of okra caterpillar include Trichogramma sp. (Hymenoptera Trichogrammatidae), Apanteles bedelliae Viereck

Spodoptera frugiperda JE Smith Lepidoptera Noctuidae

Spodoptera Frugiperda Pupa

The predators of fall armyworm are general predators that attack many other caterpillars. Among the predators noted as important are various ground beetles (Coleoptera Carabidae) the striped earwig, Labi-dura riparia (Pallas) (Dermaptera Labiduridae) the spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Hemi-ptera Pentatomidae) and the insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera Anthocoridae). Vertebrates such as birds, skunks, and rodents also consume larvae and pupae readily. Predation may be quite important, as Pair and Gross (1984) demonstrated loss of pupae to predators at 60-90 in Georgia.

Pangaeus bilineatus Say Hemiptera Cydnidae

Thyreocoridae Bug

Pangaeus bilineatus is normally blackish, though sometimes reddish-brown. The adult is oval, and measures 5.2-7.8 mm long and about 3 mm wide. The legs are blackish-brown and the tibiae bear numerous stout spines. The front tibiae are modified for digging. The scutellum is large and triangular, extending over about one-half the length of the abdomen. Adults and nymphs release noxious chemical secretions when disturbed, a behavior that undoubtedly is a defensive response (Scheffrahn et al., 1987). Although closely related to stink bugs (Pentatomidae), burrowing bug

Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say Coleoptera Chrysomelidae

Leptinotarsa Decemlineata Say

Many natural enemies have been identified, but they usually are unable to keep the Colorado potato beetle population at low levels of abundance. Harcourt (1971), for example, concluded that there were no effective natural enemies in Canada and that populations were regulated by starvation and dispersal. Not every investigator is so pessimistic about natural enemies, but clearly there is a shortage of effective naturally occurring enemies. Among common predators are green lacewings, Chrysoperla spp. (Neuroptera Chrysopidae) several stink bugs but especially twospotted stink bug, Perillus bioculatus (Fabricius) and spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris (Say) (both Hemiptera Pentatomidae) damsel bugs, Nabis spp. (Hemiptera Nabidae) many lady beetles but particularly Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer) and Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville (both Coleoptera Coccinellidae) and ground beetles, Lebia grandis Hentz and Pterostichus spp. (both Coleop- Biological Control....

Epilachna borealis Fabricius Coleoptera Coccinellidae

Because this insect is a relatively minor pest, it has not been thoroughly studied, and therefore its natural enemies are not well-known. However, general predators such as stink bugs (Hemi-ptera Pentatomidae) and assassin bugs (Hemiptera Reduviidae) are known to attack larvae. Underhill (1923) reported some evidence of attack by tachinids (Diptera Tachinidae), and he further noted that 2533 of eggs were sometimes consumed by predatory ladybeetles (Coleoptera Coccinelliae) and lacewings (Neuroptera Chrysopidae). Smith (1893) noted that squash beetle larvae frequently attack eggs, so cannibalism may be an important mortality factor.

Imported Cabbageworm Pieris rapae Linnaeus Lepidoptera Pieridae

Cabbage White Butterfly Drawing

Imported cabbageworm is subject to numerous predators, parasitoids, and diseases. General predators such as shield bugs (Hemiptera Pentatomidae), ambush bugs (Hemiptera Phymati-dae), and vespid wasps (Hymenoptera Vespidae) attack them, as do many insectivorous birds. Chittenden (1916a), for example, noted 90 predation of overwintering pupae by birds. However, parasitoids are considered to be much more important mortality factors. Harcourt (1963a) identified three important species in Ontario. Cotesia glomeratus (L.) (Hymenoptera Braconidae) attacks the early instars, and emerges from the mature larva as it prepares to pupate. Phryxe vulgare (Fallon) (Diptera Tachinidae) attacks mature larvae and emerges from the host pupa. Pteromalus puparum (L.) (Hymenoptera Pteromalidae) attacks and kills cabbageworm pupae. Cotesia glomeratus has long been considered to be the most important parasi-toid in Canada and in the northern United States. Cote-sia glomeratus is readily...

Phyllotreta ramosa Crotch Coleoptera Chrysomelidae

Phyllotreta Striolata

A parasitoid, Microtonus vittatae Muesebeck (Hymenoptera Braconidae) attacks the adults of several crucifer-feeding flea beetles, including striped flea beetle. The biology of this parasite was given by Wylie (1982, 1984) and Wylie and Loan (1984). General predators such as the shield bug, Podisus maculiventris (Hemiptera Pentatomidae) also sometimes feed on beetles (Culliney, 1986).

Family Miridae Plant Bugs

Family Pentatomidae Stink Bugs 262 Brown Stink Bug, Euschistus servus (Say) 262 Consperse Stink Bug, Euschistus conspersus Green Stink Bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say) 264 Harlequin Bug, Murgantia histrionica (Hahn) 267 Onespotted Stink Bug, Euschistus variolarius (Palisot de Beauvois) 269 Say Stink Bug, Chlorochroa sayi (Stal) and Uhler Stink Bug, Chlorochroa uhleri (Stal) 270 Southern Green Stink Bug, Nezara viridula

Agroiconota bivittata Say Coleoptera Chrysomelidae

Numerous predators are reported to feed on tortoise beetle larvae, including lady beetles such as Coccinella spp. and Coleomegilla spp. (Coleoptera Coccinellidae) but especially insects with piercing-sucking mouth-parts, such as damsel bugs (Hemiptera Nabidae), shield bugs (Hemiptera Pentatomidae), and assassin bugs (Hemiptera Reduviidae). The shield carried by larvae (see description of larvae below) is somewhat effective against small predators, but large predators, especially those with long piercing-sucking mouth-parts, are not deterred (Olmstead and Denno, 1992, 1993).

Acalymma trivittatum Mannerheim Coleoptera Chrysomelidae

Insects Black Beetle With White Stripes

Numerous natural enemies of striped cucumber beetle have been determined, but only a few are significant. Probably the most important parasitoid is Celatoria setosa (Coquillett) (Diptera Tachinidae), which parasitizes adult cucumber beetles, and was found consistently to parasitize 10-40 of the population in Ohio (Houser and Balduf, 1925). The wasp, Syrrhizus diabroticae Gahan (Hymenoptera Braconidae) also attacks adult beetles, though the incidence of parasitism was found to be less. The nematode Howardula begnina Cobb (Nematoda Allan-tonematidae) penetrates newly hatched beetle larvae in the soil, matures in the adult beetle, and is dispersed by the female during the act of oviposition. The adult beetle may contain large numbers of nematodes within her body cavity, which undoubtedly affects her longevity and reproductive capacity, but the adults are not very pathogenic. Rates of nematode infection of 10-25 are common throughout the summer in Ohio. A number of...

Characteristics of the Major Vegetable Crops

The okra is thought to be native to Africa and is an important crop in tropical countries. It is also an important element of southern cooking because it is one of the few vegetables that remain productive throughout the long summer of the southeast. It is an annual plant and is killed by light frost. Okra is grown for the seed pod, which, like snap bean, is harvested before it matures. It is unusually tall for a vegetable crop, often attaining a height of two meters. It is a relatively minor vegetable crop from a national perspective and so production statistics are infrequent. Commercial production in the United States occurs in the southeast from South Carolina to Texas. The pods are subject to attack by several pests, with the most damaging being red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (Linnaeus) and leaf-footed bugs, Leptoglossus spp.

Urbanus proteus Linnaeus Lepidoptera Hesperiidae

Urbanus Proteus Larva

Natural enemies are poorly documented. Wasp and fly parasitoids were observed in Colombia (van Dam and Wilde, 1977). Two tachi-nids with a very wide-host range, Lespesia aletiae (Riley) and Nemorilla pyste (Walker), have been reported from bean leafroller (Arnaud, 1978). In Florida, Chrysotachina alcedo (Loew) (Diptera Tachinidae) was reared from larvae, and predation was observed by a Polistes sp. wasp (Hymenoptera Vespidae) and Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus) stink bugs (Hemi-ptera Pentatomidae). Also, a nuclear polyhedrosis virus was found to infect and to kill up to 40-50 of larvae late in the season when larvae were numerous (Temerak et al, 1984).

Anasa armigera Say Hemiptera Coreidae

Squash Bug Insecticide

The best known natural enemy is a common parasi-toid of several hemipterans, Trichopoda pennipes (Fabri-cius) (Diptera Tachinidae). Beard (1940) provided a detailed study of this parasitic fly, which also attacks the other Anasa spp. and some other coreids and pen-tatomids. The brightly colored adult fly is easy to recognize, having a gold and black thorax and an orange abdomen, with a prominent fringe of featherlike hairs on the outer side of the hind tibia. Flies develop principally in the adult bug, initially castrating the female, and then killing her when the fly emerges. In Connecticut, about 20 on the squash bugs were parasitized in late summer. In recent years, considerable research has been done on the relationship of T. pennipes and southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (Linnaeus) (Hemiptera Pentatomidae). (See the section on southern green stink bug for additional literature.)

Insect Reproduction Growth and Development

Insect Reproduction

With each molt insects change their form to varying degrees, depending on the kind of metamorphosis that insects may have. Most vegetable garden insect pests have either gradual (Figure 1) or complete metamorphosis (Figure 2). Examples of gradual or incomplete metemorphosis, in which the very young resemble the adults, include plantbugs, grasshoppers, stink bugs, squash bugs, aphids and leafhoppers. Examples of pests with complete metamorphosis are Mexican bean beetles, cabbage loopers, hornworms, flies, June beetles, cutworms and armyworms.

Papaipema nebris Guene Lepidoptera Noctuidae

Stalk borer is attacked by many of the general predators that are found attacking other caterpillars. Because stalk borers often move among host plants, they likely are more susceptible to predation than some borers. Among the known predators are ground beetles (Coleoptera Carabidae), lady beetles (Coleoptera Coccinellidae), minute pirate bugs (Hemiptera Anthocoridae), stink bugs (Hemi-ptera Pentatomidae), and damsel bugs (Hemiptera Nabidae).

Coleoptera Curculionidae

No insect parasitoids are known from the United States or South America. Nematodes, particularly steinernematids, have been observed as significant mortality factors in some locations, but apparently they are limited to heavier soil types. Several pathogens, including the fungus Metar-hizium anisopliae, a microsporidian Nosema sp., and undetermined bacteria have been observed on numerous occasions to infect larvae. Also, general predators such as ground beetles (Coleoptera Carabidae), stink bugs (Hemiptera Pentatomidae), ants (Hymenoptera Pentatomidae), and birds prey on adults.

Hemiptera Coreidae

India Pest Tree Hemiptera

Vegetables, with the immatures developing on thistle. With L. oppositus, however, nymphs are found on vegetable plants and this insect behaves much like squash bug, Anasa tristis groups of insects of all stages aggregate on sheltered areas of the host plant. Chittenden (1902) reported that a toxic feeding secretion was produced by L. oppositus. A study in South Carolina compared the damage to southern peas by L. phyllopus and southern green stink bug, Nezara viri-dula, and found that three L. phyllopus per plant during early bloom stage could cause 54 total yield loss (Schalk and Fery, 1982). Late-bloom infestations, in contrast, caused only a 22 yield reduction. Stink bug feeding was more damaging, even with equivalent insect population densities, causing 100 and 74 yield loss at these two plant growth stages, respectively. (See color figures 136 and 137).

What Is a Pest

Sometimes the mere presence of insects causes concern or alarm. When simple insect occurrence or very minor feeding is the basis for designating an insect as a pest, the insect is said to be an aesthetic or cosmetic pest. However, when insects decrease the value of a commodity they are said to be economic pests. There is no absolute distinction between aesthetic and economic injury, especially with respect to vegetable crops. A home gardener may consider a dimple on a tomato fruit caused by the feeding of a stink bug to be an insignificant blemish, an aesthetic injury, but the same type of blemish can cause a produce buyer to downgrade the value of a crop, causing significant economic loss to a tomato farmer. Similarly, a few holes in the leaves of cabbage or lettuce plants caused by flea beetles is of no significance early in the life of a crop, because the affected foliage is not harvested. The same type of injury, should it be more frequent or appear late in the development of the...

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