i i i I i i i I i i i I i i i I i i i I i i i I i i i I i i i I i i i I i i i I i i i I i 11

  1. To become accustomed to a different environment.
  2. A plant that lives its entire life in one season. It is genetically determined to germinate, grow, flower, set seed, and die the same year.

beneficial insects. Insects or their larvae that prey on pest organisms and their eggs. They may be flying insects such as ladybugs, parasitic wasps, praying mantids, and soldier bugs; or soil dwellers such as predatory nematodes, spiders, and ants.

  1. A plant that is genetically programmed to grow over two seasons before setting seed and dying.
  2. The tendency of a leafy plant such as lettuce or spinach to to to seed prematurely. Often in response to very hot weather, such a plant sends up tall stalks that bear flowers, then seeds; this usually affects the quality and flavor of the foliage crop.
  3. A plant that grows vertically by means of elongating stems. It may twist, cling, or use holdfasts to climb vertical surfaces or supports.

cold hardiness. The ability of a perennial plant to survive the winter cold in a particular area.

compost. Organic matter that has undergone progressive decomposition by microbial and macrobial activity until it is reduced to a spongy, fluffy texture. Added to soil of any type, it improves its ability to hold air and water and to drain well.

county agent/extension agent. An employee of the state university who is trained to provide information and assistance to farmers and homeowners about agricultural and horticultural techniques, soil analysis, and pest control. Usually, there is an office in every county.


  1. To remove faded flowerheads from plants to improve their appearance, abort seed production, and stimulate further flowering.
  2. The opposite of evergreen; describes trees and shrubs that lose their leaves in the fall.

direct-sow. To sow seeds directly into the garden rather than starting them in small pots for later transplanting.

division. Splitting apart perennial plants to create several smaller rooted segments. Useful for controlling a plants size and for acquiring more plants, it is also essential to the health and continued flowering of certain species.

dormancy (dormant). The period, usually winter, when perennial plants temporarily cease active growth, and rest. Some plants, such as spring-blooming bulbs, go dormant in the summer.

drip irrigation. An efficient water delivery system through special lines, or hoses, laid through planted beds. Water either soaks through the hoses or leaks through special emitters inserted in them to go directly to plant roots.

  1. To sprout; to enter a fertile seed's first stage of development.
  2. To eliminate pest insects or slugs and caterpillars by removing them from plant foliage or knocking them into a plastic bag or jar of soapy water to kill them.

hardening-off. The process of gradually acclimating indoor plants or seedlings raised indoors to outdoor weather conditions.

  1. See cold hardiness.
  2. Describes plants that have fleshy or soft stems that die back with frost; the opposite of woody.
  3. Any product or chemical agent that kills plants. Some act on foliage and stem tissues, some act on seeds.
  4. A plant that is the result of either intentional or natural cross-pollination between two or more plants of the same species or genus. This pedigree is expressed by the multiplication symbol in between the two words in its botanical (scientific) name.

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