Soap Making Basics Workshop
Insecticidal soaps contain the active ingredient potassium salts of fatty acids, which penetrate and disrupt the cuticle that holds moisture inside insects' bodies. When sprayed with soap, many soft-bodied insect pests, such as aphids, dry out and die. Some pests, especially beetles with hard bodies, remain unaffected, however. To make soaps more effective, some products combine soap with pyrethrins, a botanical insecticide that's described later in this chapter.
Insecticidal soaps, oil sprays, and botanical pesticides (made from plants) are examples of pesticides that have low toxicity to nontarget organisms, such as you and your family, birds, and other wildlife. They're handy for spot treatments of serious outbreaks where resident beneficials aren't up to the job.
The characteristic properties of many herbs and spices are largely due to the presence of essential oils, which arc volatile substances that contribute to the aroma (or the essence) of certain plants. Chemically, these oils arc classified as tcrpencs, which arc unsaturated hydrocarbons with the common building block of C 0H16. Essential oils impart flavor to foods in addition, many have medicinal properties. Some essential oils reportedly function as antibiotics, decongestants, stimulants, or pain relievers. Essential oils can be found in various plant organs, but they typically occur in leaves, flowers, or fruits. For commercial applications, the essential oils arc cxtractcd by several methods, including steam distillation, expression, and solvent extraction. They may then be used in processed foods and in rnanuiacturing cosmetics, soaps, and candlcs. The recent interest in aromatherapy has greadv increased the use of essential oils, and they can now easily be purchased in many...
Alternative treatments such as insecticidal soaps, horticultural oils, and bacterial insecticides like Bacillus thuringiensis (Thuricide, Dipel, etc.) can be used for insect control. Proper pest identification, timing and an understanding of the damage potential an aid control decisions.
Inert compounds such as insecticidal soaps, oil films on water, and diatomaceous dusts constitute stable insecticides. Active insecticides, such as rotenone, extracted from the roots of derris (Derris elliptica), and natural pyrethrins extracted from the flowers of pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cineriifolium), are stable insecticides. Rotenone has been used for centuries in the Far East to control body lice, without any suggestion of resistant lice appearing. And pyrethrum flowers have been added to bedding in Dalmatia, for a comparable period, to control fleas and bed bugs, without any suggestion of resistant strains of these parasites appearing.
It is clear that both horizontal resistances and some crop protection chemicals are beyond the capacity for micro-evolutionary change of crop parasites. Examples of such chemicals include Bordeaux mixture and sulphur fungicides and, among insecticides, both the natural pyrethrins (extracted from Chrysanthemum cineriifolium) and rotenone (extracted from Derris elliptica). Insecticidal soaps and diatomaceous earth are also beyond the capacity for change of insects. And mosquito larvae cannot change to overcome the effects of a film of oil on water.
Oranges and lemons, the bells of St Clements . Citrus fruits are among the oldest, originating mainly in S.E. Asia, and having spread throughout the Old World in antiquity. They are some of the most popular fruits, usually eaten fresh, but also made into special jams known as marmalade. They are a major source of Vitamin C. Citrus spp., are members of the botanical family Rutaceae. Most citrus trees are grafted on to stocks that are resistant to various root rots, but graft incompatibilities can lead to secondary problems, such as stem-pitting due to the tristeza virus. Citrus fruits become orange or yellow when ripe but, in the tropics, they may remain green. Many citrus species produce nucellar (i.e., parthenocarpic) seeds. The rind of most citrus fruits contains essential oils that are used in a wide range of perfumes, soaps, and foods.
Palm oil can be purchased from Hast Indian or Middle Eastern food stores. It is also known as vegetable ghee. Coconut oil can be purchased from the same source, although it is often sold as a soap-making supply in hobby stores. If soybean oil is substituted for palm oil, stirring time will be about 30-40 minutes. 3. Food dyes cannot be used to color soap. Purchase dyes specifically designated for soaps from a hobby store or use spices for color. Purchase essential oils for soap fragrances from health food stores (aromatherapy scction) or from hobby stores (soap-making sec
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