Reducing Sugars Ebooks Catalog
Yeast (Saccharomycesccrcvisiac) is a singlc-ccllcd fungus that reproduces by budding new cells. Yeast is added to dough to produce CO bubbles. The yeast contains amylases that break down die starch to simple sugars. The yeast uses the sugars in respiration, releasing the stored energy and producing C02 as a by-product. Baking soda, which produces C02 bubbles chemically without yeast, is often used for fast rising muffins or cookies.
The majority of cloned nematode resistance genes originate from crop wild relatives. The first nematode R gene to be cloned was Hs1pro'1 from sugar beet, which confers resistance against the sugar beet cyst nematode H. schachtii (Cai et al. 1997). Other cloned nematode R genes closely resemble known plant R genes in their domain structure. Four of these genes, Mi-1, Hero, Gpa2 and Gro1-4, all cloned from tomato or potato relatives, fall into the NBS-LRR class of R genes (Williamson and Kumar 2006). The tomato genes Mi-1 and Hero, respectively, confer broad-spectrum resistance to several root knot nematode species (Milligan et al. 1998 Vos et al. 1998) and to several pathotypes of the potato cyst nematodes G. rostochiensis and G. pallida (Ernst et al. 2002). Mi resistance was first transferred into commercial tomato cultivars in the 1950s (Gilbert et al. 1956). Mi also confers resistance to two totally unrelated parasites, the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae and the white fly...
Envisioning both the drawbacks and the huge potential of plants as producers of cheap biomass, new production technologies are required to improve the competitiveness of plant-made biopolymers. Gene technology provides us with the tools to add new facilities to plant metabolic pathways, which should lead to the production of either high-quality or even new polymers in plants, possibly as a byproduct to traditional materials, such as starch, oil or sucrose. The following section discusses the production of four groups of polymers in plants in more detail namely starch
Widespread outbreaks of insect pests do not occur very frequently in Triticeae cereals, yet they can cause substantial crop losses. In order to enhance the insect resistance (see also Chap. 10) of wheat, Stoeger et al. (1999) generated transgenic lines which expressed the insecticidal lectin-encoding GNA gene from snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis). The transgene was directed either by the ubiquitous maize Ubi-1 promoter or by the phloem-specific sucrose synthase 1 promoter of rice. By means of an infestation bioassay using the grain aphid Sitobion avenae under glasshouse conditions, they showed that the generative reproduction of aphids on GNA-expressing plants was significantly reduced.
To address alfalfa's quality issues, we developed a new marker-free transformation method for an alfalfa-derived transfer DNA (Weeks et al. 2007). This P-DNA is more efficient than the T-DNA of Agrobacterium in promoting transfer. Agrobacterium plasmids carrying this transfer-DNA can be used to transform alfalfa by first cutting 2-day-old seedlings at the apical node. These seedlings are cold-treated and then vigorously vortexed in an Agrobacterium suspension also containing sand as an abrasive. About 7 of the infected decapitated seedlings produce intragenic shoots that transfer their P-DNA to the next generation. Efficacy of the seedling method resembled that of the Arabidopsis in vivo flower bud transformation method (Bent 2006). This floral dip procedure is based on dipping immature floral buds into a suspension containing Agrobacterium, 5 sucrose, and 0.05 surfactant L77 (see also Chap. 1). It has only been applied successfully to Arabidopsis and a few related Brassicaceae (Liu...
Sugars, usually sucrose, which move under pressure to areas of need, such as roots, flowers or storage organs. Each phloem sieve-tube cell (see p92) has a smaller companion cell that has a high metabolic rate. Energy is thus made available to the protoplasm at the end of each sieve-plate, which is able to 'pump' dilute sugar solutions around the plant. The flow can be interrupted by the presence of disease organisms such as club root (see p244).
Photosynthesis has been called the most important chemical reaction in nature. Without this process, no life on this planet would exist. The process is essentially a chemical one in which carbon dioxide combines with water to form a simple sugar. Photosynthesis requires light as an energy source and the presence of chlorophyll. It occurs only in living, chlorophyll-bearing cells that are exposed to light. The process can best be compared to a manufacturing process. The leaves are the factory, the palisade and mesophyll cells the rooms, and the chloroplasts the machines. Carbon dioxide, which comprises .03 percent of the air we breathe, and water are the raw materials. Sunlight or artificial light supplies the energy to run the machines. Simple sugars constitute the main manufactured product and oxygen is a by-product. The sieve tubes and the vessels are the transportation system, and special storage organs serve as warehouses. From the simple sugars complex carbohydrates, fats, and...
Sense and antisense suppression of sucrose synthase, nptll Since cotton is grown mainly for its fiber, it is an obvious target for improvement via genetic engineering. In addition to the usual desirable properties that include strength, fineness, length, and uniformity, cotton fiber can benefit from characteristics such as better dye binding, wrinkle resistance, and shrinkage resistance. Improvements in these last three categories will help cotton fiber compete more effectively against synthetic fibers. The number of genes involved in controlling some of these traits is likely to be large and the mechanism controlling these characteristics is expected to be complex. Several laboratories are involved in identifying and isolating genes that are involved in fiber initiation, elongation, and development. As these genes become available and are characterized, their coding and regulatory sequences will be used to engineer the cotton plant to address issues related to fiber quality...
Moieties are joined end-to-end by a(l 4) linkages. Amylopectin is a much larger branched molecule, in which about 5 of the glucose units are joined by a(l 6) linkages. The ratio between amylose and amylopectin is dependent on the plant species or variety, respectively, and is one determinant of the physico-chemical properties of plant derived starches which are important for technical uses. The biochemical pathways leading to starch formation are well documented and the key enzymatic steps have been identified (Fernie et al. 2002 Geigenberger 2003). Starch metabolism in potato tubers is particularly well characterized and attempts to both increase the accumulation of starch and to modify its structural properties by metabolic engineering have received considerable attention (see also Chap. 20). For starch synthesis in growing potato tubers, sucrose delivered from the phloem is cleaved by sucrose-synthase into uridine-diphosphoryl-glucose (UDP-glucose) and fructose, which are converted...
Media can be made from scratch, but it is more convenient to use prepackaged media. Murashige and Skoog basal medium with sucrose and agar is available from Sigma (M-9274). Each package makes one liter of medium, which is enough for 50 petri dishes or about 20 magenta jars. Follow the directions on the package to prepare the medium. Adjust the pH to 5.8 with IN XaOH prior to autoclaving. Place a stir bar in the tlask before autoclaving. After autoclaving, add the hormones as follows Both hormones should be separately dissolved in 1 or 2 ml of IN NaOH (they arc not water soluble) and filtcr-stcrilized prior to adding to the culture medium. Allow the media to cool somewhat (but don't let it solidify). Place the culture medium tlask on a magnetic stir plate and stir at medium speed for about one minute to distribute the hormones. Use culture media within a week of preparation. Prolonged storage can cause the hormones to degrade.
Given the urgent need for potato improvement, it may not be surprising that intragenic methods were first applied to the farmers' favorite variety Ranger Russet . This variety combines superior yield with disease resistance, adaptability, tuber uniformity, and high levels of starch. However, Ranger Russet is particularly sensitive to tuber discolorations linked to impact-induced bruise, and it also accumulates high levels of glucose and fructose during cold storage. These reducing sugars react with amino acids during high-temperature processing of potato to produce Maillard reaction products that darken the color of French fries from golden-yellow to brown. The main weaknesses of Ranger Russet were turned into strengths by transforming it with a specific potato-derived transfer DNA (Rommens et al., 2006). This plant-derived transfer (P-)DNA carried a silencing construct designed to simultaneously silence the tuber-expressed polyphenol oxidase (Ppo), phosphorylase-L (PhL), and...
The ingredients for cosmetic creams, lotions, powder, perfumes, lipstick or makeup come from a variety of sources, for example antioxidants, alcohol, oil and also polymers. Polymers serve in hair-setting products, as binders in skin creams and to keep sunscreens from washing off. One example is a-D-glucosylglycerol (a-GG), which is used as an anti-aging agent and moisture-regulating compound (Da Costa et al. 1998). a-GG can be produced by chemical as well as by enzymatic methods and was naturally found in microorganisms as a compatible solute for providing some protection against stresses due to high salt concentrations, heat and UV radiation. It is also useful as an alternative sweetener in food stuffs, because of its low caloric value. The microbial synthesis of a-GG is presently not a mature process, because it does not allow the production of a-GG as a bulk chemical. The achievable concentrations are very low and also the productivity of three days is not advantageous for...
When crossing does occur with field corn or popcorn, sweet corn kernels contain slightly more starch and less sugar they are less sweet and less tender than normal. Mixed white and yellow kernels appear on sweet corn ears if white or yellow cultivars are crossed with the opposite color of field corn or popcorn.
Carbohydrates can be grouped as simple sugars (monosaccharides and disaccharidcs) and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides). Simple sugars, such as glucose, fructose, or sucrose, are cheap sources ofcncigy. In our bodies, these can easily be oxidized by respiration to produce ATP. They arc also building blocks for more complex carbohydrates such as glycogen. When consumed in excess, our bodies usually convert sugars to fat Simple sugars are naturally found in many plant foods, such as fruits. Often, however. simple sugars are added to foods to sweeten and enhance the flavor. Most Americans consume much more sugar than they need. The simple sugars only provide energy and are not required for other nutritional needs. Complex carbohydrates arc larger chemicals composed of long chains of simple sugars linked together. When we ear complex carbohydrates instead of simple sugars, the energy is released over a longer period of time, so we avoid sudden peaks or valleys in blood sugar levels....
Foliar (or leaf) feeding is the most efficient way to fertilize, says John Dromgoole, owner of Garden-Ville nursery in Austin, Texas, and host of the Gardening Naturally radio program. When you apply fertilizer to the soil, the roots may take up as little as 10 percent of the nutrients, he explains, but when fertilizer is applied to the leaves, 90 percent of the material is absorbed. John regularly foliar-feeds all of the nursery stock at Garden-Ville, as well as the plants in his home landscape. His formula includes fish emulsion for nitrogen and seaweed for trace minerals, growth stimulants, and plant hormones. One of John's secret ingredients is blackstrap molasses, which contains iron and sulfur as well as simple sugars that nourish the plants.
Thaumatin, a molecule extracted from the African shrub Thaumatococcus daniellii, is used as a sucrose substitute in human food. Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs, such as PR5) are produced in some plants as a response to either pathogen attack or osmotic stress. Their anti-fungal activity is based on an ability to destabilise fungal cell membranes. The constitutive expression of a rice TLP gene in barley and wheat gave enhanced resistance to F. graminearum under glasshouse conditions (Chen et al. 1999 Anand et al. 2003). Moreover, the constitutive expression of a barley TLP gene in wheat was able to reduce the severity of FHB in both the glasshouse and the field (Mackintosh et al. 2007). The TLPs and thionins (such as PR13) also interact with the fungal cell membrane. Mackintosh et al. (2007) have shown that over-expression of an endogenous a-1-purothionin gene leads to a reduction in F. graminearum induced FHB severity in wheat.
Not all crops are equal in their production of edible food. For a plant such as an orange tree, we eat only a small portion of the plant. For other crops, such as sugar produced from sugar beets, the yield per acre is much greater. In column 4, approximate yields arc given for each food subcategory. The units arc given in kcal m yr To determine die cropland needed to produce cach type of food column 5), divide the annual energy consumption per subcategory (column 3) by the yield tor cach subcategory (column 4). The values for seafood correspond to the square meters of ocean on the continental shelf needed to support die fish and shellfish in your diet.
Peeled and coarsely chopped 1lb (500g) Granny Smith or other cooking apples, peeled, cored, and chopped 3 onions, chopped 3 4 cup granulated sugar 1 3 cup dark brown sugar 2 cups cider vinegar 1 tbsp salt 1 2 tsp chili powder 1 2 tsp ground cinnamon 1 2 tsp freshly ground black
125g 4.2oz blueberries 70-100g 2J2-3J2oz soft brown sugar 2 tbsp cornflour grated zest and juice .K orange pinch of cinnamon 375g pack ready-rolled shortcrust pastry 450g 1lb Bramley 1 apples, peeled, cored and thickly sliced beaten egg, to glaze custard or cream, to serve
The traditional sweet-sour taste of a tomato results from the sugar and organic-acid content of the fruit. Some tomatoes have a higher sugar content than others for example, 'Black Cherry' contains twice as much sugar as the oxheart 'Sterling Old Norway.' Sugar content, however, can vary with season and the ripeness of the fruit. The flavor of tomatoes ripening in the increased sunlight of high summer is usually better than that of earlier crops.
In nature, plants depend on the energy of the sun. Through a process called photosynthesis, sunlight is converted into sugars to provide fuel for the plant's growth. These sugars are utilized as needed in a process called respiration, and excess sugar is also stored for later use. Photosynthesis is made possible by chlorophyll, which is contained within the leaf cells. Chlorophyll gives vegetation its characteristic green color. Light is trapped by the chlorophyll, activating the process of photosynthesis. Inside the chlorophyll, light energy is combined with carbon dioxide and water to produce oxygen and sugar. The sugar is then oxidized (or metabolized) through the process of respiration, producing carbon dioxide, water, and energy for growth. Excess oxygen and water are transpired by the leaf into the air. Plant growth, therefore, is directly affected by the color, intensity and duration of the light the organism receives.
Apparently, the influence of the Mendelians, and the wheat breeders, was so great that all the cane breeders, except those of Hawaii, used pedigree breeding methods also. The cane breeders in Hawaii used recurrent mass selection which they called the 'melting pot' technique, in which some twenty cane parents were randomly cross-pollinated. About three million true seeds were germinated in each breeding cycle. Only 20 of these had stems like sugarcane, and these were tested for sucrose content. A small percentage of them, with the highest sucrose content, were grown for further study, including yield, agronomic qualities, and parasite resistance. Hawaii soon had the highest sugar yields in the world, with double the average of any other country. And these yields were obtained without any use of crop protection chemicals, other than protection of the cut ends of the propagation setts with fungicides. When a re-encounter disease, sugarcane smut (Ustilago
This insect overwinters in the egg stage on plant stems. Eggs hatch in early spring, and the insects feed by sucking out the plant juices, which results in stunted and distorted new growth. As leaves continue to develop they will be crinkled, with down-turned edges. Areas between veins on the upper leaf surface may be reddened. As the aphids feed, they excrete excess sugar and water
Late-maturing, dense-headed, red leaf types (B. oleracea var. capitata f. rubra) may be similarly stored for subsequent processing, especially in The Netherlands. The stage when cabbages are suitable for cutting and storage is difficult to determine solely by visual estimation. Characteristics such as head firmness, density, size, days of growth from transplanting, estimates of heat units and summation of solar radiation from planting have all been tested as means of determining readiness for storage. The estimation of sucrose content has also been offered as a means of identifying maturity and has considerable attractions since this character is easily tested in the field with the type of portable, pocket refractometers used to test sugar content of maturing beet roots.
Blue jays, house finches, downy woodpeckers, goldfinches, orioles and juncos can't resist feeders stocked with seeds, nuts and fruits. Beckon the largest and most diverse avian crowd by varying the types of feeders and the offerings. Chickadees, cardinals and woodpeckers visit hopper feeders for seeds. Tube feeders' tiny seed-dispensing slots invite small birds such as goldfinches, purple finches and pine siskins. Ground-I eve I trays stocked with millet summon sparrows and doves. Hummingbirds visit red-accented nectar feeders filled with one part white sugar to four parts water.
Biosynthesis into the developing grain, the broad bean (Vicia faba) amino acid permease AAP1 gene and the barley sucrose transporter Sut1 gene were ectopically expressed in wheat caryopses. The grain of the resulting transgenic plants had a higher protein content under glasshouse conditions, and a field validation of this result is currently underway (Biosicherheit 2008).
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