Giving birth to live young, as opposed to laying eggs. Many aphids, and other insects, are viviparous, and this increases their rate of population growth considerably, making them r-strategists. Voandezia subterranea
Bambara groundnut. This is a minor indigenous African crop with edible seeds that are formed underground like peanuts. There is probably scope for improvement by local plant breeding clubs. Vulnerability
Crop vulnerability is defined as susceptibility to an absent, foreign parasite that has epidemiological competence in the area in question. Should that parasite be imported, the vulnerability will be revealed and potential damage will become actual damage. Some crop vulnerabilities are particularly severe, the most famous example being the vulnerability of potatoes in Ireland to blight.
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