United Nations Development Program, located in New York, USA. UNEP
United Nations Environmental Program, located in Nairobi, Kenya. UNESCO
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation, located in Paris, France. Uniform distribution
The converse of a patchy distribution. With a uniform distribution of parasitism, every individual in the host population is more or less equally exposed to the parasite. A uniform distribution of parasitism is very desirable when screening plants for horizontal resistance because differences in the level of parasitism then represent differences in the level of resistance. See also: Frequency, Injury. Uniformity
"What happens when every door in the town has the same lock, and every householder has the same key that firs every lock?" A system of locking is ruined by uniformity, but this is exactly how vertical resistance has been misused during the twentieth century. See also: n/2 model. University breeding clubs
University breeding clubs are in a halfway position between the true amateurs and the professionals. Their function should be to concentrate on population breeding and horizontal resistance. They have a number of prominent advantages: -Plant breeding is somewhat intimidating for beginners. The ambience of a university breeding club is undoubtedly the best way of overcoming this intimidation. The techniques of breeding for horizontal resistance require 'hands-on' experience and a breeding club is the best means of providing such experience. The students themselves would do all the work of breeding and they would gain practical experience in every aspect of the breeding process. As one of the inducements to join, students should earn course credits from their breeding club membership and participation. The professor in charge of a breeding club would earn teaching credits for this activity.
On graduation, students should be given life membership in their club or clubs. This would entitle them to consult the university experts, and to receive, test, report on, and utilise new lines coming out of their club(s) for the rest of their lives. Graduates would be encouraged to start one or more new breeding clubs among farmers and other interested parties, in their new place of work. This would lead to a proliferation of breeding activity.
plant breeding clubs would provide a new approach to teaching in which the students themselves are involved in the actual achievements of both demonstrating the value of horizontal resistance, and of producing new resistant cultivar. Short-term research grants have no guarantee of renewal and our current system of short-term financing of agricultural research discourages long-term research projects, such as breeding for horizontal resistance. Because the breeding club work would be a teaching activity, its continuation would be secure, and the professor in charge could undertake long-term research in this topic. It need hardly be added that this is an area that has been seriously neglected, and that such research is urgently needed. In no small measure, this neglect has been due to the long-term nature of the research, and the insecurity of the research grant system.
The production of an assortment of valuable new cultivars in a range of locally important crops could provide valuable prestige for a university.
One of the chief criticisms of institutional and corporate plant breeding is that their work is so expensive, and that they are so specialised, and so technical, that their total breeding output is severely limited. A multiplicity of plant breeding clubs would provide a greatly increased amount of plant breeding. University plant breeding clubs could provide an entirely new technique for overseas aid in agriculture. Overseas aid organisations could initiate these clubs in Third World universities, and support them with technical and financial assistance until they could stand on their own feet. If successful, these clubs could eventually prove to be the most effective agricultural assistance technique of them all. These clubs could also prove to be one of the cheapest techniques of overseas aid. University clubs should be encouraged to 'twin' with a secondary school club in order to assist school children. A similar 'twinning' with amateur clubs should also be encouraged.
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