The process in which a system is either damaged or misunderstood because of working at too low a systems level. The detriment occurs either because emergents at higher systems levels remain unobserved, and/or because other subsystems are not taken into account. A triple suboptimisation occurred when Mendelian plant breeders attempted to control various crop pathosystemv using (i) the vertical subsystem only, (ii) only one vertical resistance employed on a basis of uniformity, and (iii) a vertical resistance controlled by only one gene. See also: Holistic approach, Merological approach. Subsistence crops

Crop species that are more or less confined to subsistence farming (e.g., taro). Subsistence farmers

Farmers who grow crops primarily to feed themselves and their family. They may sell subsistence surpluses, but the demand for such produce is usually low. They may also grow one of more cash crops, such as coffee or pyrethrum.

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