Also known as the Malayo-Polynesian family of languages, these are the languages of remote islands extending from Madagascar, in the West, to Easter Island, in the East, and from Hawaii, in the North, to New Zealand, in the South. The
Austronesian people spread these languages by their ability to make long ocean voyages long before either the Chinese or the Europeans developed ocean-going ships. Autocratic plant breeding
The converse of the democratic plant breeding produced by self-organising crop improvement. Autocratic plant breeding is justified by the expense of breeding for vertical resistance, and by the relatively few cultivars produced by such breeding. These cultivars, however, have a very wide ecological adaptation and their widespread use justifies their cost. But the farmer is given little or no choice of cultivar, and the breakdown of a vertical resistance can lead to widespread damage.
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