It is entirely feasible to have a secondary school plant breeding clubs in which the children do the actual breeding. Ideally, such a club should be 'twinned' with a nearby university breeding club. This approach to a combined education and plant breeding was first used in Nigeria when IITA scientists gave true seed of cassava to school children for this purpose. Schooling of fish
The schooling of fish provides an excellent example of systems levels, emergent properties, and the suboptimisation that can occur with reductionism (i.e., working at too low a systems level). A scientist studying a single fish in an aquarium cannot possibly see or study schooling, which requires the holistic approach. This explains the suboptimisation in the use of vertical resistance during the twentieth century, which resulted from the fact that scientists studied individuals and not populations (i.e., pathosystems). See also: Flocking of birds, n/2 model. Scientific monopolies
Science thrives on competition and a scientific monopoly is debilitating because it kills competition. The International Research Centres of the CGIAR tend to scientific monopolies, and all of them have a tradition that favours vertical resistance. Scion
Plant tissue in which the cell walls are thickened to provide mechanical strength. These cells have usually lost their living contents. Sclerospora graminicola
A fungal plant pathogen belonging to the Order Peronosporales (i.e., downy mildews). It causes a mildew on many grasses in the tropics and subtropics and can be damaging on cereals such as millets, sorghum and maize.
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