Proto IndoEuropean PIE

The ancestor of all Indo-European languages, believed to have been the language of early wheat farmers in southern Turkey. See also: Renfrew hypothesis. Protoplasm

The living contents of a cell, including the nucleus. See also: Cytoplasm. Proximal

That part of a plant organ that is closest to its point of attachment. See also: Distal. Prunus americana

The North American plum, which is a diploid . See also: Prunus domestica. Of rather specialised interest to amateur breeders . Prunus amygdalus

The almond, which is closely related to the peach and which originated in central and western Asia. It is self-incompatible and cross-pollination is essential for fruit formation. Almonds are cultivated for the seeds, known as nuts, mainly in Turkey and the Mediterranean, as well as in California. In the Old World, almonds are normally grown from seed, while in North America, they are propagated vegetatively. Selection within the

Old World crops could be profitable for amateur breeders but a more formal breeding program is not recommended.

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