Pollen mother cell

The cell which, as a result of meiosis, becomes the mother of pollen cells in an anther. The pollen mother cell of some crops can be used to produce a haploid plantlet for later doubling of the chromosome number into a doubled monploid. Not a technique for amateur breeders . Pollinating insects

Insects that pollinate plants. These are usually bees which are attracted to flowers by the offer of honey, but many other species of insects are involved in a wide variety of specialised flowers, such as those that stink of rotten meat to attract flies. Pollination

The placing of pollen on a stigma for the purpose of sexual fertilisation. There are a variety of methods of natural pollination, of which wind and insects are the most common. Artificial pollination is usually done by hand, but a male gametocide may also be used. See also: Allogamy, Autogamy, cross-pollination, Inbreeder, Outbreeder, Self-pollination. Pollution

Any form of contamination. In a modern context, the word is usually used to mean environmental pollution with crop protection chemicals, factory exhausts, and other forms of agricultural or industrial waste. Polycross

A system of mating in which a number of parents are represented in various combinations. Thus, full diallel cross, half diallel cross, random polycross. Polycyclic parasites

Parasites which have several life cycles in the course of one epidemic cycle, or one season. See also: Monocyclic parasite; Oligocyclic parasite. Polyethylene

Also called 'polythene'. A thermoplastic, translucent polymer of ethylene that is impermeable to water vapour but permeable to oxygen and carbon dioxide. It makes a valuable protection for delicate seedlings, cuttings, etc. It is also used in the construction of plastic greenhouses. Polygene

A gene of small effect contributing to the control of the inheritance of a quantitatively variable character that is controlled by many polygenes.

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