Plant quarantine

The isolation of newly imported plants to ensure that they are not introducing any foreign parasites. The term quarantine may refer to the quarantine station itself, or to the process of testing and purifying the plant material. Plantain

In the tropics, a plantain is a starchy banana that is eaten cooked. In the industrial countries a plantain is a large sweet banana that is eaten raw. Plantation forest

Man-made forest in the sense that the tree species used, their planting densities, and other factors, are controlled in much the same way as an agricultural crop is controlled. Plants as food

Humankind evolved as a hunter-gatherer and an omnivore, and our most natural diet consists of both meat and plant foods. In general, meat provides up to twenty times more nutrition than most plant foods. Consider the food supply of hunter-gatherers. Our centre of origin is in East and Southern Africa. This is an area of savannah that carries up to 20,000 kilograms of herbivore game animals per square kilometre, and these convert inedible grass into edible meat. At the other extreme, tropical rain forest carries only 5-10 kg/sq.km. It is no accident that rain forests have the fewest archaeological remains of hunter-gatherers, or that our hominid ancestors favoured open grasslands. Plant foods are also essential in the human diet as they provide various vitamins, fibres, etc. Vegans prefer a diet made up exclusively of plant foods, while vegetarians usually tolerate dairy products, eggs, and fish. Plasmopora viticola

The microscopic fungus that causes downy mildew of grapes. This was a new encounter disease , as it originated in the New World and was taken to Europe on rootstocks of wild American grapes intended for grafting to control Phylloxera. This was the disease in which Millardet discovered Bordeaux mixture. In 1822, he found that vines next to the public road at the Château Beaucaillon, in the Médoc district of Bordeaux were free of the disease, and he discovered that they had been spattered with a poisonous-looking substance to discourage passers-by from eating the grapes. This substance was the mixture of copper sulphate and lime that we now call Bordeaux mixture.

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