An association of determined amateur breeders who would normally wish to breed crops for horizontal resistance with a view to reducing the losses from crop parasites, reducing the use of crop protection chemicals, reducing the environmental and human health hazards caused by crop protection chemicals, and/or earning plant breeders' royalties by breeding for comprehensive horizontal resistance. See also: University breeding clubs. Plant breeding institutes
Plant breeding institutes, often with a large staff of specialists, were deemed necessary because of the problems associated with breeding for single-gene, vertical resistance that were part of a gene-for-gene relationship. The problems associated with this kind of plant breeding are the overall cost, the relatively few cultivar produced, and the short agricultural life of most of the cultivars which have ephemeral resistance. See also: Professional plant breeding. Plant disease
A plant disease may be infectious, and caused by a parasite, or it may be physiological, and caused by an environmental factor such as frost, a nutrient deficiency, or a toxin. The parasites that cause plant disease are usually called pathogens, and they include fungi, bacteria, phytoplasmas, viruses, and viroids. Parasitic nematodes and angiosperms are often considered plant pathogens also. Plant diseases are studied by plant pathologists, who are sometimes called phytopathologists. Plant growth chambers
These are research chambers, which may even be an entire room, in which all variables contributing to plant growth can be controlled. These variables include light intensity, light quality, day-length, temperature, humidity, nutrients, presence or absence of parasites, and so on. Plant hoppers
Homopterous insects characterised by antennae located on the sides of the head, below the eyes. Closely related to the cicadas, whiteflies, aphids, and scale insects.
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