This differential interaction is the definitive characteristic of the gene-for-gene relationship. It was first described by Robinson (Plant Pathosystems, 1976, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, New York, & London) and the details are not necessary for amateur plant breeding. Pest
In its widest sense, any organism that interferes with the activities of humankind. In the sense of pest control, or pest management, the term includes all agricultural, medical, veterinary, industrial, and domestic pests. This gives a very wide meaning to the term pesticide, which has a more restricted definition in this guide. Pesticide
Any substance that kills pests. In the present guide, the term pesticide refers exclusively to substances that kill crop parasites. Competitors, such as weeds, and the substances that kill them (i.e., weed killers, herbicides), are specifically excluded from the definition. Insecticides, fungicides, bacteriocides, miticides, and nematocides are all pesticides that kill crop parasites. They may be applied as liquids, dusts, vapours, or pellets, and they may be applied to the crop itself, to the soil, or to the seed. Pesticide over-kill
This term describes any application of a pesticide that involves a greater dosage, or a higher frequency of application, than is necessary for a control of the pest in question. Pesticide overload
This term is usually used to describe the long-term effects of an excessive use of pesticides . Pesticide pollution
The pollution of food, fodder, fields, and the environment with pesticides Petal
The components of a corolla of a flower. Each petal is a modified bract and is delicate. Petals are usually brightly coloured to attract pollinating insects, and even birds. Windpollinated plants do not need such attractants, and usually have inconspicuous flowers (e.g., grasses).
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