A singularly nasty pesticide containing copper and arsenic, which was widely used until replaced with DDT. Parsley
See: Petroselinum crispum. Parsnips
See: Pastinaca sativa. Parthenocarpic
The production of fruit without pollination, as with bananas. Parthenogenetic
The development of an individual from a gamete without fertilisation. Partial resistance
This term, meaning 'incomplete', was originally used to describe horizontal resistance. Unfortunately, 'partial' also means biased, and the term would better describe vertical resistance. Horizontal resistance would then be impartial resistance. These terms are best avoided. Pascal's triangle
A mathematical device for calculating the possibilities of 'either-or' events, such as 'boy or girl' in single-child births, or the presence or absence of vertical genes. For example, with three births, there are one possibility of three boys, three possibilities of two boys and a girl (i.e., 'boy-boy-girl', 'boygirl-boy', and 'girl-boy-boy'), three possibilities of two girls and a boy, and one possibility of three girls. These possibilities are called the binomial coefficients. They are important for calculating the numbers of biochemical locks and keys that there will be in the n/2 model of the gene-for-gene relationship and the vertical subsystem. Paspalum spp.
Tropical fodder grasses from South America. Passiflora edulis
The passion flower, which is cultivated for its fruit that are used to add flavour to fruit salads and drinks. This crop is open-pollinated and offers scope for amateur breeders who should aim at horizontal resistance to locally important parasites, increased fruit size and juice content, and yield. Passion fruit
See: Passiflora edulis. Pasta wheat
See: Triticum durum. Pasteurisation
Named after Louis Pasteur, this is a technique of heating wine, milk, food, or soil to about 80°C in order to destroy harmful micro-organisms. This level of heating does not lead to a complete sterilisation, for which a temperature of about 120°C is required. Pasteurised soil can be used as soon as it is cool, whereas sterilised soil usually needs about three weeks to recover its beneficial micro-biological activity. Pastinaca sativa
The parsnip, which is an open-pollinated, biennial member of the Umbelliferae, and is cultivated for it large, yellow, tapering root, which is eaten as a vegetable. Amenable to breeding by amateurs.
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