Obligate parasite

A parasite that is able to extract nutrients only from a living host. It cannot extract nutrients from non-living material. See also: Facultative parasite. Oidium

This is the generic name given to the conidial stage of all powdery mildews, the Erysiphales. The conidia are consistently similar throughout this family, being unbranched and producing chains of hyaline, oval conidia. Oil insecticides

A thin film of mineral oil (e.g., kerosene) on water will kill mosquito larvae by depriving them of oxygen. This is an example of a stable insecticide which is beyond the capacity for micro-evolutionary change of the parasite. Oil palm

See: Elaeis guineensis. Oil seed crops

Any crop that is cultivated specifically for its seed, which has a high vegetable oil content. Temperate oil seeds include canola, sunflower, and linseed. Tropical oil seeds include oil palm, sesame, and coconut. Oil is also extracted, on an industrial basis, from other seeds, such as maize, soybean, peanut, and cotton, which are not cultivated specifically for their oil. Oil is also extracted from the fruit tissues of olives, avocado, and oil palm. Okra

See: Abelmoschus esculentus. Old encounter parasite

A parasite that has been in continual contact with its crop host since the earliest domestication. Wheat rust in Europe is an old encounter parasite. If the crop host is moved to a new area (e.g., from the Old World to the New), and the parasite is moved with it, as happened with wheat rust in North America, it is still an old encounter parasite. See also: New encounter, re-encounter. Olea europaea

The olive. This crop is an excellent example of both ancient clones that demonstrate the utility and durability of horizontal resistance, and of an ancient domestication that achieved results that modern plant breeding cannot improve. However, an entirely new, modern requirement is the need for mechanical harvesting, which will necessitate fruits that ripen simultaneously, and that are easily detached. This is a task for professional breeders, and this crop is not recommended for amateur breeders . Oligocyclic parasite

A parasite that has several, but not many, life cycles in each crop cycle, or season. See also: Polycyclic, Monocyclic. Olive

See: Olea europaea. Omnivore

A consumer of both animal and plant foods. Humans are omnivores as some two million years of hunter-gathering demonstrate. Our teeth also indicate our fundamental omnivorous nature. See also: Vegetarian, Vegan. One-pathotype technique

A technique for ensuring that all vertical resistance are matched during the process of screening for horizontal resistance. The technique requires the designation of a single vertical pathotype of the parasite in question. All the original parents of the breeding population must be susceptible to (i.e., matched by) the designated pathotype, which is then used in all screening for resistance to that parasite, during the entire the breeding program. The designated pathotype is usually cultured on the matching designated host. See also: Saturation technique. Onion

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