Nicotine is extracted from tobacco and can be used as an insecticide, often in the form of nicotine sulphate. It is apparently a stable insecticide. However, it is toxic to humans and is generally avoided for this reason. Niederhauser, John S.
Working with potato blight (Phytophthora infestans) in Mexico, in the 1950s, John Niederhauser was the first scientist to deliberately avoid vertical resistance in favour of horizontal resistance. He was awarded the World Food Prize in 1991. Night soil
Human excrement that is spread on crops as organic manure. As it can carry various intestinal parasites, it should be employed with caution. Niloparvata lugens
The brown plant hopper of rice. This is one of the relatively few insect parasites of crops in which there is a vertical subsystem. Unfortunately, the miracle rices proved unusually susceptible, and vertical resistance proved unsuccessful in its control. In the Philippines, it is being controlled with insecticides, but also with IPM, and farmer-participatory schemes breeding for horizontal resistance.
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