Monocotyledon

Any Angiosperm that has only one cotyledon in each seed. They are often called the narrow-leaved plants, and the leaf veins are usually more or less parallel. The flower parts are in multiples of three. Seeds of monocotyledons cannot be split into two halves like split peas. Cultivated monocotyledons include all the cereals and other grasses (Gramineae), onion family (Alliaceae), palm family (Palmae), banana family (Musaceae), ginger family (Zingerberaceae), yam family (Dioscoreaceae), and pineapple family (Bromeliaceae). Monoculture

The cultivation of a single crop, without any crop rotation. Monoculture greatly increases the chances of serious epidemics, particularly of soil-borne parasites. Monoculture is most dangerous when it is continued for a long period of time, when it involves very large acreages, and when the entire crop consists of a single, genetically uniform cultivar, and when that cultivar is protected by vertical resistance. Possibly the largest and longest monoculture consisted of the United Fruit Company banana plantations of the Gros Michel cultivar in various countries of the Caribbean. It was eventually ruined by the soil-born diseases called Panama disease and Moko disease. Monocyclic parasites

Parasites that have only one life cycle in each season or crop cycle. See also: Oligocyclic, Polycylic. Monoecious

Greek = one house. The occurrence of separate male and female flowers on one plant. See also: dioecious, hermaphrodite. Monogenic characters

Characters whose inheritance is controlled by a single gene. For example, vertical resistances are monogenic characters. Monogerm

Sugar beet in which each fruit contains only one seed. This is an important commercial advantage as it removes the necessity of thinning out the young seedlings in the field by hand. Monolock

In the crop pathosystem, we have misused the gene-for-gene relationship by employing it on a basis of crop uniformity called monolock. For this reason, vertical resistance is temporary resistance in agriculture. Monolock is a host-parasite system of locking that has been ruined by uniformity. "What happens when every door in the town has the same lock, and every householder has the same key, which fits every door?" This kind of uniformity occurs in cultivars that are genetically uniform, and in which every plant has the same biochemical lock (i.e., vertical resistance). Such a cultivar is likely to be cultivated in crop populations that total millions, probably billions, and possibly even trillions, of plants, all with the same lock. Monoploid

A plant possessing only one basic set of chromosomes. See also: Doubled monoploid. Monozygotic

Monozygotic twins are produced from a single fertilised egg, which then divides into two separate but genetically identical embryos. See also: Dizygotic. Monsoon

Seasonal winds in India and S.E. Asia. The wet monsoon blows from the southwest, from May to September, and brings rain from the Indian Ocean. The dry monsoon blows from the northeast from October to April, and brings dry conditions.

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