Insects are a Class of Arthropods that have three pairs of legs, and three body regions (head, thorax, and abdomen). In addition, they nearly always have a pair of antennae, and the adults often have one or two pairs of wings. Insects usually reproduce with eggs, but live birth also occurs (e.g., aphids). Insect growth involves a series of 4-8 moults, and the stages between moults are called instars. There is often a metamorphosis, usually at the time of the last instar (e.g., caterpillars turning into butterflies or moths). Most insect parasites of crops cause damage during the early instars, and the function of the final adult instar is often one of reproduction only, without any feeding. See also: Aphid, Beetle, Ladybird, Stem borer, Thrips, Whitefly. Instar

A stage of growth of an insect that is concluded by the moulting or shedding of the exoskeleton, which is incapable of growth or expansion. Most insect species have 4-8 instars, often concluding with a metamorphosis. Institutional plant breeding

Plant breeding conducted by a large institute. This kind of breeding is usually expensive and, consequently, it favours cultivar with a wide climatic adaptability. In practice, this means the use of vertical resistance if at all possible. Institutional breeding does not normally allow for farmer-participation schemes and it tends to be autocratic. see also: Corporate plant breeding, Democratic plant breeding, and Self-organising crop improvement. Integrated pest management (IPM)

A system of pest management in which every important parasite in a crop is monitored and crop protection chemicals are used only when absolutely necessary. The idea is to minimise the use of crop protection chemicals in order to reduce biological anarchy and to stimulate biological control. IPM is used mainly against the insect parasites of crops, and it is greatly assisted by horizontal resistance. Intellectual property protection

Legislation that provides the equivalent of a copyright on a breeder's registered cultivar. The sale of all propagating material of that cultivar is then controlled, and the breeder earns royalties on those sales. Intensive crop

A crop that has high profit margins and which consequently justifies considerable expense in its production. Horticultural crops are intensive crops, while cereals are usually extensive crops.

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