Cereals, such as wheat, rice, barley, and oats that are self-pollinating and are usually cultivated as pure lines. Inbreeding crops
Many of the cereals and grain legumes are inbreeding and they require hand-pollination during the breeding process. See individual crops for details. Most tree crops are out-breeding, with the notable exceptions of arabica coffee and peach.
Traditionally, during the twentieth century, inbreeding crops have been subjected to Pedigree breeding and the genetransfer techniques suitable for single-gene characters, rather than the recurrent mass selection that promotes many-gene characters. Consequently, many of them exhibit a marked vertifolia effect, and they are mostly good candidates for breeding for horizontal resistance by amateur breeders . Inbreeding depression
The converse of hybrid vigour, or heterosis. When an outbreeder is repeatedly selfed there is a steady loss of vigour. When two of these inbred lines are crossed, they exhibit heterosis.
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