The decomposed organic matter in soils. Humus is a source of plant nutrients, and it is necessary for microbiological activity. It also contributes to soil structure and drainage. Hundred seed weight

This measurement indicates the average seed weight in a crop such as wheat. Breeders who aim exclusively at total yield may end up with very many, very small grains; while breeders who aim exclusively at a high weight of individual seeds may end up with low yields. amateur breeders should be aware of this laboratory measurement when selecting parents in a program of recurrent mass selection . Hungry Forties

The period during the 1840s when blight was destroying the potato crops of Europe. The famine was at its worst in Ireland where one million people died of starvation, and one and a half million emigrated, mainly to North America. This reduced the population of Ireland by about one third. Eastern Germany, Poland, and western Russia suffered similar famines.

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