Ginger

See: Zingerber officinale. Globodera rostochiensis

A cyst-forming nematode, known as the 'golden nematode', that is a serious pest of potatoes and tomatoes. Glomerella spp.

A poorly defined genus of fungi, which are often the perfect (i.e., sexual) stages of Colletotrichum. Gluten

The main protein in wheat flour. Gluten allows wheat dough to stretch and this makes the production of bread possible, by allowing gas bubbles to develop in the dough from fermentation by yeast. Glycine max

The soybean, now the most important grain legume in the world, with Brazil, USA, and China being the largest producers. Soybean was domesticated in China about one millennium BC. However, the modern expansion in cultivation came only after breeding in the USA had produced types suitable for mechanical harvesting and with appropriate day-length responses, because photoperiod sensitivity limits a cultivar to a narrow belt of latitude. Modern production is as an industrial crop for edible oil extraction (20-23% of the seed) and a high protein meal used mainly for animal feed, but with increasing prospects for human food. In the Far East, soybeans are utilised as soy sauce, soya milk, bean curd or tofu, and green beans. Soybeans can also be used as a pasture crop, and for hay and silage.

Soybean is self-pollinated. About 1% of natural cross-pollination occurs and can be utilised in a recurrent mass selection program if a suitable marker gene can be found. amateur breeders should aim primarily at horizontal resistance, with a view to producing cultivars for organic farmers. Glycyrrhiza glabra

Liquorice. A pernnial herb of the family Leguminosae, which is of ancient cultivation in Central Asia and Southern Europe. It has sweet rhizomes and roots. The sweetness comes from glycyrrhizin. GMO and GM

See: Genetically modified organism. Golden gram

See: Phaseolus aureus.

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