Any organism that had been modified by genetic engineering. The organisms involved range from micro-organisms modified to produce complex pharmaceuticals, to herbicide-resistant and parasite-resistant crops, and pigs intended to provide transplant organs for humans. Genetically modified pharmaceuticals
Some rare pharmaceutical products can be produced in quantity by genetically modified micro-organisms, and this is a more acceptable application of genetic engineering that the use of GMOs in agriculture. This is because no alternatives to these often essential drugs exist, and the patient either takes them or does without. Even if these drugs did have long-term adverse effects, this is usually considered less damaging to the patient than having no drugs at all. In comparison, there is much less justification for the use of genetically modified crops in agriculture. Geneticist
A scientist who studies genetics. Plant and animal breeders are often called applied geneticists.
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