A pesticide that kills a fungus. Most fungicides are synthetic and are proprietary compounds that are used to control plant diseases, but a few have medicinal, veterinary, and domestic uses. The most famous, and spectacularly successful fungicide was Bordeaux mixture, discovered by Millardet in France in 1882. A protective fungicide is one that is entirely external and which prevents infection. It thus protects the host plant from disease. A systemic fungicide is one that is absorbed by the plant and can kill an internal fungus. It thus cures a disease. Fusarium oxysporum

This fungus causes wilt diseases in many different hosts. The pathologically induced wilt is usually caused by a combination of xylem vessels that are blocked by the presence of the fungus, and by toxins produced by the fungus.

This fungus has a very wide host range and its various formae speciales are usually named after their hosts, or the area of their first discovery. Thus f.sp. cubense causes Panama disease of banana, f.sp. albedinis causes Bayoud disease of date palms, f.sp. lycopersici causes tomato wilt, f.sp. apii causes celery wilt, f.sp. conglutinans causes cabbage yellows, f.sp. dianthi causes carnation wilt, f.sp.lini cause flax wilt, f.sp. pisi cause pea wilt, f.sp. vasinfectum causes cotton wilt, and so on. amateur breeders can accumulate horizontal resistance in the annual hosts but crops such as banana and date palm are definitely not recommended for them.

Note that the various f.spp., of this fungus exhibit a differential interaction with their host species, but that this differential interaction is not due to vertical resistance. See also: Verticillium. FYM

See: Farmyard manure.

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