An ancient Roman cultivar of fig that was mentioned by Pliny the Elder (23-79 AD) and which is still being cultivated in Italy. This is an example of an ancient clone demonstrating the durability and efficacy of horizontal resistance. Doubled monoploid

A monoploid (i.e., haploid) cell or plant that has undergone a doubling of its chromosomes to produce a functional diploid . Doubled monoploids are produced artificially, usually by culturing a pollen mother cell, or a pollen cell, into a haploid plantlet, which is then stimulated chemically to double its chromosome number. Alternatively, an unfertilised ovule can sometimes be made to grow into a haploid plantlet by pollination with pollen from a different species . Doubled monoploids are completely homozygous, and this can be very useful in various plant breeding procedures. (See also: Haploid, diploid , Tetraploid, Triploid). Douglas fir

See: Pseudostuga menziesii.

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