A genus of plant pathogenic, gram-positive bacteria that cause disease in tomato, potato, and various ornamentals. Cosmopolitan cultivars cultivar that have a wide geographical and environmental range. Cotton

See: Gossypium spp. Cotyledon

The first leaves produced by germinating seeds are called cotyledons. All flowering plants (Angiosperms) are divided in those that produce either one or two cotyledons at the time of seed germination. Monocotyledons are plants that produce a single cotyledon, and they are often called the narrow-leaved plants. Among cultivated plants, they include all the grasses, cereals, and sugarcane, crops of the onion family, bananas, pineapples, palms, and ginger. Dicotyledons are plants that produce two cotyledons, and they are often called the broad-leaved plants. Seeds of dicotyledons can be split into two halves (e.g., split peas). Among cultivated plants, they include all the peas and beans, most of the temperate fruits and nuts, crops of the cabbage, cucumber, and potato families, cotton, rubber, tea, coffee, cocoa, cassava, sweet potato, and many vegetables, and herbs. Covered smuts

The smut fungi are a group within the Basidiomycetes which cause diseases mainly in cereals and grasses. The covered smuts (c.f., loose smuts) are so-called because they form a black spore mass inside the seed, and these spores are released when the seed coat breaks. In cereal crops, this produces contaminated seed, as opposed to infected seed, and the disease can be easily controlled with a fungicidal seed dressing.

There is a covered smut of barley (Ustilago hordei), oats (Ustilago kolleri), and sorghum (Sphaceolotheca sorghi). The covered smuts of wheat are usually called bunt, or stinking smut, and are caused by (Tilletia caries, T. foetida, and T. contraversa). Cowpea

See: Vigna unguiculata. Cranberry

See: Vaccinium spp.

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