See: Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Colocasia esculenta. Codling moth

See: Carpocapsa pomonella. Coffea arabica

Arabica coffee. This is the main coffee of commerce. It is an autogamous allotetraploid , (2n = 44) believed to have been derived from an infertile cross between the two wild diploid , Coffea canephora and Coffea eugenioides (2n = 22), which subsequently doubled its chromosome number to become a fertile tetraploid. First cultivated in Ethiopia, it was taken to Arabia Felix (Southern Yemen) where the famous Mocha variety was grown. The Dutch then took it to Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and Indonesia. Seed was then taken to Amsterdam, and one tree was given to the King of France who sent seed to Martinique. All the coffee of the New World was derived from this seed and was a pure lines. All the pests and diseases had been left behind in the Old World, and Latin America soon became the principle coffee producing area, with Brazil in the lead.

Ethiopia now has coffee cultivar with sufficient horizontal resistance to control all the major pests and diseases, including coffee berry disease, and it is the only country that can produce this resistant coffee that does not need any crop protection chemicals.

In countries where the ripe berries are picked by hand, the 'wet method' of processing is used. The coffee is pulped, graded, and fermented to produce so-called parchment coffee, which is then dried in the sun. It is then hulled to remove the parchment and silver skin. This produces a mild coffee that will tolerate a light roast. With the 'dry method', whole cherries are dried in the sun and then milled. This produces a hard coffee which must be given a dark roast.

There is a detailed account in Return to Resistance.

Possibly the most promising approach to coffee breeding is to re-create the allotetraploid from the two wild diploids. But this is not recommended for amateur breeders . See also: Hemileia vastatrix. Coffea canephora

Robusta coffee. Less desirable than C. arabica, it is suited to a much wetter climate, and is in demand for the manufacture of instant coffee. Believed to be one of the diploid parents of the allotetraploid Coffea arabica. Coffea eugenioides

A wild diploid coffee of eastern Africa, of no commercial value, but it is believed to be a parent of the allotetraploid Coffea arabica. If an attempt were made to re-create Coffea arabica, this species would become scientifically important. Coffee

See: Coffea arabica, Coffea canephora, and Coffea eugenioides. Coffee berry disease (CBD)

See: Colletotrichum coffeanum. Coffee leaf rust

See: Hemileia vastatrix. Coix lachryma-jobi

Adlay, or Job's tears. Coix is a genus of monoecious grasses. Several species are of ancient cultivation as cereals in S.E. Asia, China, and Japan. A crop of considerable potential for amateur breeders . Cola

See: Cola spp.

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