A flat, wingless, reddish-brown, hemipterous bug, known as the bed bug, of interest in that the natural pyrethins in Chrysanthemum cineriifolium have remained a stable insecticide after centuries of use in Dalmatia. CIMMYT
Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo. Located near Texcoco, in Mexico, this is the home of the miracle wheats, and it is a bastion of pedigree breeding and single-gene resistances. With IRRI, these are perhaps the best examples of autocratic plant breeding, as opposed to the democratic plant breeding of plant breeding clubs.
This is one of the CGIAR research stations. Cinchona spp.
Several species of this South American genus of trees are cultivated for the extraction of quinine and other drugs. Cinnamomum zeylanicum
The spice cinnamon, consists of the dried green bark (called quills) of an open-pollinated, evergreen tree, which is indigenous to Sri Lanka (Ceylon), and is propagated by seed. Selection within existing crops should lead to improved clones and vegetative propagation . There is thus scope for amateur breeders . There are no serious pests or diseases, but these might develop if a single clones is cultivated excessively.
Cinnamon is a very ancient crop and was being shipped by Austronesian people to Madagascar, and from there it was taken to Africa and, eventually, to ancient Rome. The Portuguese conquered Ceylon in 1536 and gained a monopoly in the cinnamon trade. The Dutch conquered them, and the monopoly, in 1656. Then the British conquered the Dutch, and won the monopoly, in 1796. In the nineteenth century, commercial production commenced in various parts of the world, and the monopoly was broken, but the Sri Lanka cinnamon remains the best.
Distillation of the wood of C. camphora produces camphor. Cinnamon
See: Cinnamomum zeylanicum. CIP
Centro Internacional de la Papa. Located in Lima, Peru, this is the international research centre for potatoes. This is one of the CGIAR research stations. Circadian rhythm
Most living organisms have a twenty-four hour rhythm in various of their metabolic processes. This 'circa-diem' rhythm is apparently controlled by an internal biological clock which continues to function under artificial conditions of continuous day or night. However, the mechanism of this clock is not understood. Citrullus lanatus
Water melon. This is a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, and is a native of Africa. Like all cucurbits, water melons are open-pollinated and there is great variation in all the quality characteristics. There are a number of pests and diseases and amateur breeding for horizontal resistance is likely to be productive. Citrus (generally)
"Oranges and lemons, the bells of St Clements". Citrus fruits are among the oldest, originating mainly in S.E. Asia, and having spread throughout the Old World in antiquity. They are some of the most popular fruits, usually eaten fresh, but also made into special jams known as marmalade. They are a major source of Vitamin C. Citrus spp., are members of the botanical family Rutaceae. Most citrus trees are grafted on to stocks that are resistant to various root rots, but graft incompatibilities can lead to secondary problems, such as stem-pitting due to the tristeza virus. Citrus fruits become orange or yellow when ripe but, in the tropics, they may remain green. Many citrus species produce nucellar (i.e., parthenocarpic) seeds. The rind of most citrus fruits contains essential oils that are used in a wide range of perfumes, soaps, and foods.
Most citrus varieties are so popular, and so well entrenched, that there is little scope for amateur breeders to produce improved quality. There is scope for improved horizontal resistance, but amateur breeders should regard this as one of the more challenging crops. Citrus aurantifolia
Lime. In the late eighteenth century, the British admiral Nelson insisted on his sailors drinking lime juice, in order to prevent scurvy, which is due to a deficiency of Vitamin C. This earned the British the nickname of 'limeys'. Lime fruits do not travel well and are little used in temperate countries. However, they are immensely popular in tropical and subtropical countries where the fresh juice is routinely squeezed over food and into alcoholic drinks. Citrus aurantium
The sour or Seville orange. Not suitable for eating as fresh fruit, these oranges are used mainly for making marmalade. Sour orange is also widely used as a rootstock for other species of citrus, but these graft combinations are often susceptible to the Tristeza virus. This species includes the Bergamot variety that yields Bergamot oil, which provides the characteristic flavour of Earl Grey tea.
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