See: Elettaria cardomomum. Carica papaya
Papaw (often misspelled 'pawpaw'). The plants are tropical, soft-wooded trees with a relatively short lifespan, cultivated for their fruit and for the extraction of papain, which is an enzyme able to break down protein, and it is used as a meat tenderiser, and as a medical aid to digestion. The best eating fruit is produced in a very hot climate. The plants are dioecious but hermaphrodite lines exist. Being open-pollinated, recurrent mass selection is easy, and this is an excellent crop for amateur breeders. There should be a rigorous negative screening of male trees before anthesis. The only problem is that the plants are rather big, and considerable space is required if a large population is to be screened in each breeding cycle. There are a number of virus diseases, and breeding for horizontal resistance should be both rapid and easy. Selection within commercial crops might be the most convenient technique, selecting plants with minor symptoms rather than those with no symptoms, as these might be escapes from infection. If feasible, inoculation of all plants in the screening population is advised.
This is one of the crops that has never been found wild, possibly because hunter-gatherers exploited it to extinction while early farmers ensured the survival of domesticated forms. The crop is believed to have originated in Central America, in the area Mexico-Costa Rica. See also: Extinct wild progenitors. Carya pecan
Pecans, a native of Mexico and the southern USA. Nuts are still harvested from wild trees but the majority are cultivated as clones. Some scope for amateur breeders selecting among wild trees. The pecan is also the source of hickory wood, in demand for smoking various foods. Carnivore
An eater of animal tissues; meat-eater. See also: herbivore, omnivore. Carpocapsa pomonella
The codling moth which attacks apples, producing a grub in the core of the fruit. Carrot
See: Daucus carota.
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