Canola

See: Brassica campestris. Cantaloup

See: Cucumis melo. Capsicum spp.

When Columbus reached the Americas, he believed he had arrived in India, and he caused more confusion in European languages than any other person by introducing terms such as 'Indians', 'West Indies', 'India rubber', 'Indian corn' (maize), and 'red pepper'. He was looking for black pepper (Piper nigrum) but all he found were chilli peppers, otherwise known as red, green, sweet, and hot peppers, cayenne, Tabasco, and paprika, which are all members of the genus Capsicum. Chilli peppers are now so common in countries such as India and China that the people of these countries believe them to be indigenous.

The taxonomy of this genus is very confused and, as most types interbreed freely, the one species Capsicum annuum covers all but a few perennial types known as Capsicum frutescens. The whole of C. annuum should be regarded as a single hybrid swarm showing immense variation. The plants are mostly self-pollinated with about 15-20% of cross-pollination. Pure lines are thus possible and both emasculation and crossing are easy. Combined with the very wide variation, this ease of working makes it an excellent crop for amateur breeders working in warm climates. There are some quite serious virus and anthracnose disease , as well as several insect pests, that merit breeding for horizontal resistance.

Chillies are another example of a crop with extinct wild progenitors. Capsid

Leaf or plant bugs of the family Miridae, of the order Hemiptera. Some species are serious pests of cultivated plants. Carbohydrate

Organic chemicals made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, such as starch and sugars. Most carbohydrates are produced by plants as a result of photosynthesis, a process that uses chlorophyll and solar energy to combine water and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates, often in the proportion of one carbon atom to two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. Carbohydrates are a major source of dietary energy.

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