A term sometimes used to describe the vertical resistance genes in an individual host. Its biochemical lock either does or does not match the biochemical key of the parasite that is allo-infecting it. This is the operation of the system of locking of the gene-for-gene relationship in a wild plant pathosystem, according to the n/2 model. Its function is to reduce the frequency of allo-infections that are matching infections, thus reducing the population explosion of an r-strategists parasite. Biochemistry
Any aspect of biological diversity, including ecosystems, and their diversity of species, ecotypes, etc. The term is relevant to the ecological principle that diversity provides stability. Biological anarchy
The loss of biological control that occurs when pesticides kill the hyper-parasites, predators, competitors, antagonistic organisms, or other biological control agents of a crop parasite. Biological anarchy is probably a phenomenon of much greater importance than has been realised in the past. When the effects of biological anarchy are considerable, a restoration of biological controls causes a major reduction in parasite damage, and this is the basis of integrated pest management (IPM). Because the use horizontal resistance restores biological controls, the phenomenon of biological anarchy suggests that we may need considerably less horizontal resistance than we may think in order to obtain a complete control of various crop parasites. Biological control
The control of crop parasites that is exerted by predators, hyper-parasites, competitors, antagonistic organisms, and other agents. The effects of this control can be diminished or lost entirely by the use of crop pesticides. This loss of biological control that occurs with pesticide use is called biological anarchy. The proponents of integrated pest management (IPM) rely very heavily on restoring lost biological controls by reducing pesticide use. These losses may be more important than many people realise. They also suggest that we may need rather less horizontal resistance than we may think in order to obtain a complete control of crop parasites, because the biological controls will be restored once pesticide use stops. The best means of restoring biological control is by the use of horizontal resistance; and the best means of enhancing horizontal resistance is by restoring biological control. The two effects are mutually reinforcing. Biological order
A term from modern complexity theory. It means that the self-organisation is fully functional and operating. The n/2 model is the result of self-organisation and, when functioning, is an example of biological order. Parasitism is not competition between host and parasite. Nor is it cooperation. It is biological order.
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