Amphidiploid

An alternative term for allotetraploid. Amphimictic

The adjectival form of amphimixis. Amphimixis

The converse of apomixis, and meaning reproduction by seed which has been produced by a normal sexual fusion. Anacardiaceae

Family of tropical trees that includes mango and cashew. Anacardium occidentale

Cashew nut. Although it is frost-susceptible, cashew is one of the hardiest of trees and, in warm countries, will grow on poor soils that are unsuitable for other crops. The nuts fetch a high price and the crop is about as valuable as arabica coffee. However, a factory is necessary for the specialised task of shelling the nuts. Each nut is borne externally on the end of a fairly large fruit. The fruit is edible, but very astringent, and it can be utilised for the manufacture of alcohol. There is a correlation between total yield and quality, the highest yielding trees producing small nuts of low commercial quality. But there is great variation among trees, and there is scope for selection within existing orchards, by amateur breeders, with a view to vegetative propagation of selected clones. Anaerobic

Living conditions in which there is an absence of oxygen. Organisms which do not require oxygen are labelled as anaerobic organisms. The converse, meaning with oxygen, is aerobic. Analogous evolution

Evolution in which similar features have different origins (e.g., the wings of birds, insects, and bats represent analogous evolution). This is the converse of homologous evolution, in which similar features have a common origin (e.g., all the plants in one family have a common ancestor). Ananas comosus

Pineapple. This is a very difficult crop to breed and it is definitely not recommended for amateur plant breeders. Anastomsis

Natural grafting that can occur in either stems or roots. For example, mango seeds contain both a nucellar embryo and a normal embryo that is the result of open-pollination. Trees growing from casually discarded seeds often consist of two trunks joined at the base by anastomosis. One trunk is the nucellar seedling and is identical to the maternal parent, while the other is an open-pollinated variant and is visibly different in many characteristics, including fruit quality and resistance to parasites.

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