Allele

The alternate copies of a single gene. Each gene normally consists of two alleles. Each allele occurs on one of the two matching chromosomes, one of which comes from the male parent, and the other from the female parent. In one individual, the two alleles may be both dominant (AA), both recessive (aa), or one of each (Aa). The first two of these combinations are described as homozygous; the third is heterozygous. Allelopathy

A mechanism that reduces or eliminates competition from other species by the production of toxins. The best known example is that of antibiotics produced by fungi to suppress the growth of bacteria. Equally familiar is the effect of a carpet of pine needles in suppressing the germination of other plants. Alliaceae

The botanical family that includes the onions and their relatives. However, some taxonomists prefer to classify Allium spp., within either the Liliaceae or the Amaryllidaceae. Allium ampeloprasum

Leeks and 'elephant' garlic. Leeks are tetraploids and set seed freely, while 'elephant' garlic is a hexaploid (6x) and is sterile. Plant breeding clubs should certainly consider the possibility of breeding leeks for horizontal resistance, but they should steer clear of 'elephant' garlic. The breeding procedures are those of open-pollinated crops.

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