Bursiculate baglike bot

bushel: a dry-volume measure of varying weight for grain, fruit, etc., equal to 4 pecks or 8 gallons (2150.42 cubic inches or 36.368 liters); a bushel of wheat and soybeans each weighs ~60 pounds: a bushel of maize, rye, grain sorghum, and linseed each weighs ~56 pounds; a bushel of barley, buckwheat, and apples each weighs ~48 pounds agr bushy grasses: grasses forming tufts bot butyrous: butterlike bot

C banding: a cytological staining technique for chromosomes that labels regions around the centromere with Giemsa stain; usually a bandlike and darkly stained structure appears, which consists of heterochromatin; the technique is intensively used in chromosome identification and genome characterization, including structural changes and polymorphisms cyto meth >>> banding >>> Giemsa staining

14C dating >>> radiocarbon dating

C mitosis: mitosis in single-celled organisms is responsible for the production of new individuals (asexual reproduction); mitosis in multicellular organisms, such as plants, is responsible for the growth of the organism and the repair of damaged tissues; first, DNA must be replicated so that there is a duplicate set of genetic information to be given to each daughter cell; second, the DNA must be divided so that each daughter cell gets the same set of information; mitosis is a three-step process: (1) replication of genetic material in the mother cell, (2) separation of the replicated genetic material, and (3) formation of the two daughter cells; when polyploidy is induced with colchicine, an alkaloid of the meadow saffron (Colchicum autumnale) that inhibits mitosis, the development of the nuclear spindle is hampered; the mitosis that takes place after treatment with colchicines is called a C mitosis; it also enables an easier detection and identification of chromosomes than anormal mitosis does; during the prolonged metaphase of a C mitosis, the chromosomes form an X-shaped structure since the chromatids are still connected at the centromere though they may repel each other; after some time, the chromatids finally part, but they do not segregate; they become enclosed by a new nuclear membrane and proceed to their interphase state; the number of chromosomes has now dou-bled—a diploid nucleus has developed into a tetraploid one cyto

C value: the DNA quantity per genome (i.e., per chromosome set); the content of diploids is referred to as the 2C; haploid cells contain the 1C amount of DNA cyto

C3 pathway: most common pathway of carbon fixation in plants; this photosynthesis produces at first a 3-carbon (C3) compound (phosphoglyceric acid); in C3 plants, about 25 percent of the net carbon uptake is reevolved immediately in photorespiration phys

C4 pathway: a carbon fixation found in some plants that have high rates of growth and photosynthesis and that are adapted to high temperatures, strong light, low carbon dioxide levels, and low water supply; this photosynthesis produces at first a 4-carbon (C4) compound (phosphoenolpyruvate, PEP); in C4 plants, photorespiration is suppressed to a very large extent due to the presence of a very efficient C2-concentrating mechanism phys

CA >>> combining ability

CAAS: Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science CAAT box >>> CAT box cadastral gene: a plant gene that controls the expression of floral homeotic genes biot cadastre: an official register of the ownership, extent, and value of real property in a given area, used as a basis of land taxation agr caffeine: a white, crystalline, bitter alkaloid, C8H10N4O2, usually derived from coffee or tea chem phys

Cajal body (CB): a nuclear structure that is found in both plants and animals; it contains components of at least three RNA-processing pathways biot calceolate: shoelike in form bot calcicole: a plant that grows best in calcium-rich soils bot agr calcicolous plant >>> calcicole calciphobe: reduced growth on calcium-rich soils bot calciphyte >>> calcicole calcium (Ca): a silver-white bivalent metal, combined in limestone or chalk chem calicle >>> callycle callogenesis >>> callus callose: hard or thick and sometimes rough organic matter bot callus (callipl): tissue that forms over a wound or that develops from actively dividing plant tissue in a tissue culture; usually a disorganized mass of undif-ferentiated cells biot; in botany, the thickened part of the base of (e.g., oat grain) bot callus culture: the in vitro culture of callus, often as first stage in the regeneration of whole plants in culture biot >>> tissue culture callus induction: undifferentiated plant tissue is produced at wound edges; callus can also be induced and grown in vitro by varying the ratio of hormones (e.g., auxin and cytokinin) in the growth medium biot callycle: a protective structure around a flower formed collectively by the sepals bot calycular: cuplike bot calypter >>> calyptra calyptra: a cap or hood covering a flower or fruit bot >>> root cap calyx (calyces pl): the outer part of a flower; all the sepals of a flower bot cambium: in the stem and roots of vascular plants, a layer of cells lying between the xylem and phloem bot camerate: chamberlike bot campanulate: bell-like in form bot

Canada balsam: resin distilled from the bark of Abies balsamea (balsam fire) and other similar species; used in cytology for mounting (e.g., chromosome spreads) cyto micr candidate tree: a tree that has been tentatively selected for inclusion in a breeding program, but has not yet been measured or compared with surrounding trees meth fore candidate variety: breeding strains, lines, or hybrids of high grade that by a breeder or institution are announced for official national (and international) performance testing in order to get released as a certified variety seed cane: a long and slender, jointed, rigid, woody stem that is hollow or pithy (e.g., in grasses, palms, rattan, bamboo or sugarcane) bot; in viticulture, a mature, woody, brown shoot as it develops after leaf fall; canes were last year's fruiting or renewal shoots; the buds on the canes will produce this season's fruiting shoots hort cane sugar >>> saccharose canescent: densely covered with grayish or whitish, short, soft hairs bot canker: a plant disease in which there is sharply limited necrosis of the cortical tissue (e.g., in apple); in rape, it causes leaf spotting over winter and cankers on the stem later; the latter are the more serious and appear after flowering caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, asexual stage Phoma lingam phyt; sharply defined dead area of tissue on stem phyt cannabinol (THC) >>> hemp

Canola: a type of rapeseed that has been developed and grown in Canada; Ca-nola is a registered trademark, corresponding to specified low contents in erucic acid in oil and in glucosinolates in meals equivalent to double 0 in the EU standard; it was initially obtained by conventional breeding, but in recent years herbicide-tolerant varieties have been developed agr canopy: the vertical projection downward of the aerial portion of plants, usually expressed as percent of ground so occupied bot meth canopy temperature depression (CTD): the cooling effect exhibited by a leaf as transpiration occurs; it gives an indirect estimate of stomatal conductance, and is a highly integrative trait being affected by several major physiological processes including photosynthetic metabolism, evapo-transpiration, and plant nutrition; it has potential for complementing early generation phenotypic selection in plants phys cap: structure at the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNA introduced after transcription by linking the terminal phosphate of 5' GTP to the terminal base of the mRNA; the added G is methylated, giving a structure of the form 7MeG5' ppp5'Np biot >>> cap site cap site: the probable transcription initiation site of a eukaryotic gene; the primary transcripts of most eukaryotic mRNAs have an A (adenine) in the first position and the cap is added 5' to it gene biot >>> cap capillarity: the process by which moisture moves in any direction through the fine pores and as films around particles agr capillarity moisture: that amount of water that is capable of movement after the soil has drained; it is held by adhesion and surface tension as films around particles and in the finer pore spaces agr capitulum: flower head; an aggregation of flowers on a flat platform and edged by bracts bot cappiliform: hairlike bot capsid: protein coat that encloses DNA or RNA molecules of bacteriophage or virus biot capsular fruit >>> capsule capsule: a dehiscent fruit with a dry pericarp usually containing many seeds bot carbohydrate: the dominating substances of the cell sap are soluble carbohydrates; they occur as disaccharides, such as saccharose and maltose or as monosaccharides, such as glucose and fructose chem phys >>> Table 16

carbon cycle: the biological cycle by which atmospheric carbon dioxide is converted to carbohydrates by plants and other photosynthesizers, consumed and metabolized by organisms, and returned to the atmosphere through respiration or decomposition phys carbon dioxide: a gaseous compound that is formed when carbon combines with oxygen chem phys carbonate: a salt or ester of carbonic acid chem carboxyl group: the univalent group COOH, characteristic of organic acids chem phys carboxylase: any of the class of enzymes that catalyze the release of carbon dioxide from the carboxyl group of certain organic acids phys carboxylation: introduction of a carboxyl group into an organic compound phys carding: the process of untangling and partially straightening fibers by passing them between two closely spaced surfaces meth agr carinate: keeled, boatlike bot carmin: used for preparation of carminic acid; this is a red die used for coloring or staining chromosomes and other cytological material; carmin is prepared from cohineal meth cyto >>> cochineal carmine staining >>> aceto-carmine staining carnivorous plant >>> insectivorous plant carnous: fleshy bot

CARNOY's fixative: a fixator solution, which consists of 6 parts ethanol: 3 parts chloroform: 1 part acetic acid; used in chromosome analysis micr cyto carotene: a yellow compound of carbon and hydrogen that occurs in plants; it is a precursor of vitamin A chem phys carotin >>> carotene carpel: one of the female reproductive organs of the flower, comprising an ovary and usually with a terminal style tipped by the stigma bot >>> Figure 35

carrier: a heterozygote that carries an allele (recessive) that is not expressed gene carrying capacity: the density of a density-regulated population at equilibrium gene cartenoid: a yellow, orange, red or brown pigment, which is located in the chloroplast and chromoplast of plants; it acts as photosynthetic accessory pigment bot caruncle: a reduced aril in the form of a fleshy, often waxy or oily outgrowth near the hilum of some seeds bot caryopsis: the single-seeded, dry, and nutlike fruit of the grasses in which the mature ovary wall (pericarp) and the seed coat (testa) are fused bot casein: a protein precipitated from milk; sometimes used for in vitro techniques chem biot cash crops: agricultural production such as grains, hay, root crops, and fiber; in contrast to vegetables and fruits agr >>> truck crop castrate >>> emasculate

CAT box: a conserved nucleotide sequence within the promoter region of numerous eukaryotic structural genes gene biot cat gene (CAT): chloramphenicol acetyl-transferase gene (and protein); it is used as a selective marker for cloning vectors and as a reporter gene biot >>> chloramphenicol acetyl-transferase catabolic: pertaining to an enzymatic reaction leading to the breakdown of a complex biological molecule into less complex components, which may either yield energy in the form of ATP or be used in subsequent anabolic reactions chem phys catalase: an enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of hydrogen peroxide to water and the oxidation by hydrogen peroxide of alcohols to aldehydes during seed germination phys catalyst: a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without apparent change in its own physical or chemical properties chem catalyze: to induce or accelerate a chemical reaction by a substance that remains unchanged in the process chem phys cataphyll: in cycads, a scalelike modified leaf that protects the developing true leaves bot

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