Blind floret blind

blindfold (trial): a trial to study soil heterogeneity (i.e., variation in the soil fertility); all plots contain the same genetically uniform plant material; the study may show that the growing conditions provided by a particular field may appear homogeneous when observed in some season and for some trait of a crop, but they may appear heterogeneous when observed in a different season or for some trait of a different crop; for a given crop, different traits may differ with regard to their capacity to show soil heterogeneity stat meth block: a number of plots that offer the chance of equal growing conditions; comparisons among the entries, which are tested in the same block, offer unbiased estimates of genetic differences stat meth >>> Tables 25,26 >>> biased blocking: the procedure by which experimental units are grouped into homogeneous clusters in an attempt to improve the comparison of treatments by randomly allocating the treatments within each cluster or block stat >>> block >>> thinning >>> Table 25

bloom: the white powdery deposit often present on the surface of the stem, leaves, and ears of cereals or sorghum; often of a waxy nature; in general, the flower of a plant or the state of blossoming bot >>> waxiness blooming: in grasses, the period during which florets are open and anthers are extended bot agr blossom: the flower of a plant, especially of one producing an edible fruit; the state of flowering bot blot: the transfer of DNA, RNA, or proteins to an immobilizing binding matrix, such as nitrocellulose, or the autoradiograph produced during certain blotting procedures (Southern blot, Northern blot, Western blot, etc.) meth gene biot blotch: a disease characterized by large and irregularly shaped spots or blots on leaves, shoots, and stem phyt agr blunt end ligation: ligation of DNA with blunt ends requires higher concentration of DNA ligase than sticky end ligation; it is inhibited by ATP concentrations > 1 mM biot blunt ends: DNA fragments that are double-stranded paired over the whole length, usually produced by certain types of restriction enzymes gene

BOERNER divider >>> conical divider boleless: without a trunk bot boll: the fruit of cotton bot boll size: weight in grams of seed cotton from one boll agr meth bolt: formation of an elongated stem or seedstalk; in the case of biennial plants, this generally occurs during the second season of growth bot >>> bolter bolter: they develop in long cold springs with morning frosts and low temperatures, not exceeding +5°C, causing vernalization of the plants (e.g., in sugarbeet) phys bolting: production of seed stalks the first season in a biennial crop (e.g., in beets) phys >>> bolter bolting resistance >>> bolter >>> bolting bonsai: a tree or shrub grown in a container or special pot and dwarfed by pruning, pinching, and wiring to produce a desired shape meth hort boot: the lower part of a cereal plant bot boot(ing) stage: it refers to the growth stage of grasses at the time the head is enclosed by the sheath of the uppermost leaf agr border effect: the environmental effect on plots that are on the edge of an experimental area stat meth border strip: a demarcation surrounding a plot, usually given the same treatment as the plot; it is arranged in order to minimize border effects meth agr hort boron (B): a nonmetallic element occurring naturally only in combination, as in borax or boric acid; boron can cause toxicity in several crop plants; as a micronutrient, deficiency of boron can be as severe chem agr botanical pesticides: pesticides whose active ingredients are plant-produced chemicals such as nicotine, rotenone, or strychnine phyt >>> biological control botany: the science of plants; the branch of biology that deals with plant life; the plant life of a region; the biological characteristics of a plant or group of plants bot bottleneck: a period when a population becomes reduced to only a few individuals gene eco botuliform: cylindrical with rounded ends, sausagelike in form bot bough: the main arm or branch of a (fruit) tree bot hort boundary mark >>> landmark bouquet stage: a meiotic prophase stage of some organisms during which the chromosome oriented by one or both ends toward one point in the nuclear envelope cyto

Boyage system >>> chopping bp >>> base pair brachyomeiosis: an abnormal meiosis characterized by omission of the second meiotic division cyto bract: a modified leaflike structure occurring in the inflorescence bot bracteole: a little bract borne on the flowerstalk above the bract and below the calyx bot bran: compromises aleuron and pericarp cell layers; the bran and germ are separated during milling agr meth branch: an axillary (lateral) shoot or root bot branch >>> ramify branching >>> ramification branching agent: a substance inducing and/or increasing branching hort brand: a legal trademark registered by a particular company or distributor for its exclusive use in marketing; a product such as seeds or plants seed agr; in plant pathology, a leaf disease caused by a microscopic fungus (e.g., a rust or smut); sometimes names the fungi phyt brassinosteroid: brassinosteroids are endogenous, plant-growth-promoting natural products with structural similarities to animal steroid hormones; they affect cell elongation and proliferation, distinct from that of auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellic acids, although they interact with them phys >>> biological control breakage-reunion hypothesis: the classical and generally accepted model of crossing-over by physical breakage and crossways reunion of broken chromatids during meiosis gene breakpoint:when chromosome mutations occur, the site at which the single or double strand of DNA breaks along a chromosome and/or chromatid cyto gene breathing root >>> pneumatophore breed: an artificial mating group derived from a common ancestor or for genetic analysis; in breeding, a line having the character type and qualities of its origin; in general, a group of plants, developed by humans that will not keep their characteristics in the wild breeder: a person who raises plants primarily for breeding purposes breeder('s) seed: seed or vegetative propagating material increased by the originating or sponsoring plant breeder or institution; it represents the true pedigree of the variety; it is used for the production of genetically pure, foundation, registered, and certified seeds seed >>> Table 28

breeder's collection >>> working collection >>> stock breeder's preference: a general impression by the breeder concerning a material that is under selection meth >>> Table 33

breeder's rights: varietal protection; the legal rights of a breeder, owner, or developer in controlling seed production and marketing of crop varieties >>> PPA and PVPA

breeding: the propagation and genetic modification of organisms for the purpose of selecting improved offspring; several techniques of hybridization and selection are applied meth >>> Table 35

breeding line: a group of plants with similar traits that have been selected for their special combination of traits from hybrid or other populations; it may be released or used for further breeding approaches meth breeding method >>> breeding system breeding orchard: a planting of selected trees, usually clonally or grafted propagated; it is designed to ease breeding work meth breeding population: a group of individuals selected from a wild, experimental, or crossing population for use in a breeding program; usually phenotypically selected for desirable traits meth >>> Table 35

breeding size: the number of individuals in a population involved in reproduction during particular generations and breeding procedures meth breeding system: the system by which a species reproduces; more specifically, the organization of mating that determines the degree of similarity and/or difference between gametes effective in fertilization meth >>> Figure 31 >>> Table 35

breeding true: producing offspring with phenotypes for particular characters that are identical to those of the parents; homozygous individuals necessarily breed true, whereas heterozygotes rarely do so meth gene breeding value: the value of an individual as defined by the mean value of its progeny, either on the basis of individual traits or a selection index meth breeding zone: an area within which a single population of improved trees can be planted without fear of misadaptation fore brevicollate: short necked bot brick grit test: a type of seedling emergence (vigor) test utilizing uniformly crushed brick gravel through which seedlings must emerge to be considered vigorous; it was originally developed by HILTNER and IHSSEN (1911) for detecting seed-borne Fusarium infection in cereals; with modifications, the seeds are planted on damp brick grit or in a container of sand covered with 3 cm of damp brick grit, then germinated in darkness at room temperature of a specific time seed bridge parent: a parent that is sexually compatible with two reproductively isolated species and can be used to transfer genes between them meth bridge-breakage-fusion-bridge cycle: a process that can arise from the formation of dicentric chromosomes; daughter cells are formed that differ in their content of genetic material due to duplications and/or deletions in the chromosomes cyto gene bridging cross: a method of bypassing an incompatibility barrier between two species or genotypes by using a third species or genotype that is partly compatible with each of them in an intermediate cross meth bridging species: a species used in a bridging cross in order to bring together the two incompatible species eco bristle: a stiff, sharp hair bot broad wing: the larger of the two parts of the glume of, for example, wheat, which are separated by the keel bot broad-base terrace: a low embankment that is constructed across a slope to reduce runoff and/or erosion (e.g., in rice or grape cultivation) agr hort broadcast: scattered upon the ground with the hand (e.g., in sowing seed, instead of sowing in drills or rows) meth agr hort broadleaf: sometimes used to designate a broad group of nongrasslike (weedy) plants agr bot broom: a symptom in which lateral branches proliferate in a dense cluster on the main branch (e.g., witch's broom) phyt agr hort browning: discoloration due to phenolic oxidation of freshly cut surfaces of explant tissue; in later culture this phenomenon may indicate a nutritional or pathogenic problem, generally leading to necrosis biot bruising (in potato): a gray or blue-black localized discoloration that develops in the tuber flesh as a result of physical impact agr brush: the tuft of hair at the top of, for example, wheat grain bot >>> coma brushing: spreading spores of fungi by brush on leaves or flowers for infection experiments phyt; in crossing experiments, spreading pollen on stigmata of (emasculated) flowers in order to initiate fertilization meth

BSA >>> bulked segregant analysis

Bt: an abbreviation for Bacillus thuringiensis; it is a naturally occurring soil bacterium used as a biological pesticide (biopesticide); engineered plants have a gene from Bt inserted into their own genetic material; this new gene produces a natural protein that kills insects after the protein is ingested; the toxins are specific to a small subset of insects; for example, cotton has been genetically altered to control the tobacco budworm, bollworm, and pink bollworm; potatoes have been altered to control the Colorado potato beetle; hybrids of "Bt-maize" altered to be resistant to the European corn borer; the Bt toxin degrades rapidly to nontoxic compounds phyt >>> biological control

Bt gene: a gene from the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis that gives resistance to lepidopterous insects; by biotechnological means it was successfully transferred to cotton, tobacco, etc. biot

BTT >>> balanced tertiary trisomic bud: an immature shoot, protected by tough scale leaves, from which the stem and leaves or flowers may develop bot bud dormancy >>> dormancy bud eye: a dormant bud in the axil of a leaf; used to propagate through bud-grafting meth hort bud mutation >>> bud sport bud pollination: a procedure utilized in maintaining self-incompatible parent lines by self-pollination; hybrid seed production in plant species having a sporophytic self-incompatibility system is dependent upon the production of inbred lines homozygous for a self-incompatibility allele S; in these species, a protein secretion covers the stigmatic surface just prior to anthesis and acts as a barrier to penetration of the stigma by germinating pollen grains; when buds are opened and the pollen applied before the protein barrier is formed, seed set can be obtained (e.g., in rapeseed) meth bud pruning: removal of lateral buds from a stem to prevent them from developing into branches hort fore bud scale: a modified leaf, without lamina, protecting a bud bot bud sport: a somatic mutation occurring in a bud of a plant; it results from local genetic alteration and produces a permanent modification; it is usually retained by grafting; this sort of mutation is often used in fruit tree breeding gene meth hort bud union: the site of junction on a stem, usually swollen, where a graft bud has joined the stock following the process of budding; frequently found at or near soil level bot hort bud-bearing >>> gemmiferous budded: grown from a bud grafted onto a desirable understock hort meth budded >>> budding budding: formation of buds as a result of cell division in a localized area of a shoot, usually promoted by cytokinins and inhibited by auxins bot; in horticulture, the grafting of a bud on to a plant hort budding strip: a strip of rubber or other material used to hold grafts meth hort budding union >>> bud union buffer: a solution mixed by a weak acid and a weak alkali; it prevents changes of the pH value, therefore it is a suitable medium for enzyme reactions chem prep bulb: an underground storage organ, comprising a short, flattened stem with roots on its lower surface, and above its fleshy leaves or leaf base, surrounded by protective scale leaves bot bulb planter: a sharp-edged, tapered cylinder used to remove a plug of soil or sod in which a bulb is placed; the plug is then returned to the hole in order to cover the bulb meth hort bulbil: a small, bulblike structure, usually formed in a leaf axil, that separates from the parent and functions in vegetative reproduction bot >>> Figure 28

bulbosum technique >>> Hordeum bulbosum procedure bulbous: tuber-shaped; forming tubers bot

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