berry: a simple, fleshy or pulpy and usually many-seeded fruit that has two or more compartments and does not burst open to release its seeds when ripe (e.g., banana, tomato, potato, grape) bot berry-bearing >>> bacciferous berry-shaped >>> bacciform best linear prediction (BLP): a statistical method that utilizes matrix algebra to predict the breeding values for any trait or selection index; in BLP fixed effects are assumed to be known; BLP is especially suited for analyses of messy or unbalanced data meth stat best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP): a statistical method that predicts breeding values for any trait or selection index meth stat beta-DNA: the normal form of DNA found in biological systems, which exists as a right-handed helix gene bevel (of lemma): a depression variable in depth in the base of the lemma, rounded in barley, transverse in oats bot bias: a consistent departure of the expected value of a statistic from its parameter stat biased >>> bias bi-cropping: a method of growing cereals in a leguminous living mulch; it could potentially reduce the need for synthetic inputs to cereal production while preventing losses of nutrients and increasing soil biological activity; also a method of low input production system for cereals agr meth biennial: a plant that lives for two years; during the first season food may be stored for the use during the flower and seed production in the second year bot >>> annual >>> perennial biennial crop >>> biennial bifloral: showing two flowers bot bifoliate: showing two leaves bot bifurcate: forked bot bigerm: having two seeds bot bimitosis: the simultaneous occurrence of two mitoses in binucleate cells cyto bimodal distribution: a statistical distribution having two modes stat binary scale: a scale for scoring data where there are only two possible responses meth binemic: chromosomes that contain two DNA helices per metaphase chro-matid cyto binomial nomenclature: the system of naming organisms using a two-part Latinized (or scientific) name that was devised by the Swedish botanist Caro-lus LINNAEUS (1707-1778); the first part is the generic name (genus), the second is the specific epithet or name (species); the Latin name is usually printed in italics, starting with a capital tax bot binucleate: cells with two nuclei cyto bioassay: the use of living cells or organisms to make quantitative and qualitative measurements meth biocatalysis >>> biotechnology biocatalyst: a biological substance used to cause a particular chemical or biochemical reaction phys chem biochemical genetics: a branch of genetics dealing with the chemical nature of hereditary determinants gene biochemistry: the chemistry of life; the branch of chemistry that is concerned with biological processes chem biocide: a natural or synthetic substance toxic to living organisms phyt biocoenosis: a community of organisms and its interaction with abiotic factors of habitat eco biocontrol >>> biological control biodiversity: the existence of a wide variety of species (species diversity), other taxa of plants or other organisms in a natural environment or habitat, or communities within a particular environment (ecological diversity), or of genetic variation within a species (genetic diversity); genetic diversity provides resources for genetic resistance to pests and diseases; in agriculture, biodiversity is a production system characterized by the presence of multiple plant and/or animal species, as contrasted with the genetic specialization of monoculture evol eco agr bioethics: a field of study and counsel concerned with the implications of certain genetic and medical procedures, such as organ transplants, genetic engineering, and care of the terminally ill bio biogenesis: the production of living organisms from other living organisms bio biolistic gene gun: "biolistic" derived from a contraction of the words "biological" and "ballistic"; it refers to a projectile fired from a gun; it is used to shoot pellets that are loaded with genes into plant seeds or tissues, in order to get them integrated and/or expressed in the foreign background; the gun uses an actual explosive to propel the material; compressed air or steam may also be used as the propellant biot biological assay >>> bioassay biological containment: precaution taken to prevent the spread of recombinant DNA molecules in the natural environment; disabled host organisms (e.g., with stable auxotrophic requirements or defective cell walls) together with nontransmissible cloning vectors are used; biological containment is especially important when toxin genes from pathogens are expressed in Escherichia coli or other vectors biot biological control: the practice of using beneficial natural organisms to attack and control harmful plants, animal pests, and weeds is called biological control, or biocontrol; this can include introducing predators, parasites, and disease organisms, or releasing sterilized individuals; biocontrol methods may be an alternative or complement to chemical and gene-engineered pest control methods phyt >>> Bt >>> Bt gene biological pesticide: a chemical which is derived from plants, fungi, bacteria, or other natural synthesis and which can be used for pest control phyt biological species concept: a system in which organisms are classified in the same species if they are potentially capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring evol biological yield: the total yield of plant material (i.e., the total biomass including the economic yield, e.g., the grain yield); the larger the biological yield, the greater the photosynthetic efficiency phys biom: interactive groups of individuals of one or more species eco biomass: the total weight of organic material in a given area or volume; it can be divided into aboveground and belowground biomass phys biometrical genetics >>> quantitative genetics biometry: mathematical statistics applied to biological investigations stat biopesticide >>> biological pesticide >>> Bt biopiracy: the collecting and patenting of plants and other biological material formerly held in common and their exploitation for profit biot bioreactor: a culture vessel used for experimental or large-scale biopro-cessing biot bioseeds: seeds produced via genetic engineering of existing plants biot seed biosome: any autonomous cell constituent multiplying by autoreduplication gene biostatistics: the application of statistics to biological data stat >>> biometry biosynthesis: the synthesis of the chemical components of the cell from simple precursors phys biotechnology: any technique (e.g., recombinant DNA methods, protein engineering, cell fusion, nucleotide synthesis, biocatalysis, fermentation, cell cultures, cell manipulations etc.) that uses living organisms or parts of them to make or modify products, to improve organisms or to make them available for specific uses biot biotin(e): it functions as coenzyme; is a part of the vitamin B complex; it is also called vitamin H; it is present in all living cells, bound to polypeptides or proteins; it is important in fat, protein, and carbohydrate metabolism; it is a common addition to plant tissue culture media biot phys biotinylated probe: a DNA sequence in which biotinylated dUTP is incorporated and labeled with biotin; it is used in DNA-DNA hybridization experiments, such as Southern transfer or in situ hybridization, with chromosomes; the detection of hybrid molecules is realized by a complex of streptavidin, biotin, and horseradish-peroxidase; if there is a hybridization then the complex shows a green fluorescence color micr cyto biot biotope: a portion of a habitat characterized by uniformity in climate and distribution of biotic and abiotic components eco biotrophic pathogen: a parasitic organism that obtains its nutrient supply only from living host tissue regardless of whether or not it can be artificially cultured phyt biotype: a group of genetic identical individuals; sometimes, a physiologic race gene bird netting: different types of mesh used as a drape to keep birds out of fruit trees, berry patches, vegetable gardens, or field experiments meth hort agr bird pollination >>> ornithophily birdscare: scarecrow birimose: opening by two slits (e.g., anthers of plants) bot bisexual: species comprises individuals of both sexes or a hermaphrotide organism in which an individual plant possesses both stamens and pistils in the flower bot >>> Table 18
bisulfite genomic sequencing: a procedure in which bisulfite is used to deaminate cytosine to uracil in genomic DNA; conditions are chosen so that 5-methylcytosine is not changed; PCR amplification and subsequent DNA sequencing reveals that cytosines are methylated in genomic DNA biot bivalent: two homologous chromosomes when they are paired during prophase-metaphase of the first meiotic division cyto >>> Figure 15
bivalent formation: the association of two homologous chromosomes as a ring or rod configuration depending on chiasma formation cyto >>> Figure 15
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