Authorship claim to a variety seed breeders rights

autoallopolyploid: cells or individuals whose genomes show characteristics of both auto- and alloploidy cyto autoallopolyploidy >>> autoallopolyploid autobivalent: a bivalent of meiosis I that is formed from two structurally and genetically completely identical sister chromosomes cyto >>> Figure 15

autochthon(e): one of the indigenous plants of a region eco autochthonous: applied to material that originated in its present position eco >>> indigenous autoclave: an apparatus in which media, glassware, etc., are sterilized by steam and/or pressure meth autoecious: describing rust fungi completing the life cycle on one host plant (e.g., rusts) phyt autofertility >>> autogamy >>> self-fertility autofluorescence: fluorescence from objects in a microscope sample other than from fluorophores micr autogamous >>> autogamy autogamy: obligatory self-fertilization bot >>> Table 35

autogenomatic: genomes that are completely homologous and pair normally in meiosis cyto autograft: a graft of tissue from a donor of one genotype to a host of the same genotype; the graft usually takes place from one part to another part of the same individual hort autolysis: the destruction of a cell or some of its components through the action of its own hydrolic enzymes phys automatic selection >>> unconscious selection automatic weighing machine >>> automatic scales automixis: obligatory self-fertilization bot automutagen: any mutagen formed by the organism itself that may induce mutations gene automutation: a mutation that arises without exogenic application of mutagens gene >>> spontaneous mutation autonomous apomixis: agamic seed formation that does not depend on pollination bot >>> diploid parthenogenesis >>> parthenogenesis autophene: a genetically controlled character that is manifested by the cell's own genotype and which shows special behavior in transplants and explants gene autophyte: any organism that synthesizes its own food, as a photosynthetic plant, as opposed to heterophyte bot autoploid: a cell or individual with genomes characteristic of the species itself cyto autopolyploid: a polyploid organism that originates by the multiplication of a single genome of the same species cyto autopolyploidization: the occurrence of doublings of chromosome number by failure of chromosomes to divide equationally in a mitosis following chromosome replication; plants seem to have commonly used autopolyploidization as an evolutionary tool cyto >>> C mitosis autopolyploidy >>> autopolyploid autoradiography: a method of determination of amounts and distributions of radioactive substances using photographic material, which is blackened when it is exposed to radiation; usually tritium, the radioactive isotope of hydrogen, or radioactive phosphorus are incorporated into molecules instead of hydrogen or common phosphorus, in this way certain compounds can be traced meth biot autoreduplication: biological systems that generate the template for their own reproduction and duplicate themselves bio autoregulation: a regulatory system of gene expression in which the product of a structural gene modulates its own expression gene autosegregation: the occurrence of changes in the chromosome complement during the formation of the egg cell cyto autosomal gene: a gene located on an autosome (i.e., a chromosome that is not a sex-determining chromosome) gene autosome: any chromosome in the cell nucleus other than a sex chromosome cyto autosyndesis: the pairing of complete or partial homologues of chromosomes cyto autotetraploid: an autopolyploid with four similar genomes; if a given gene exists in two allelic forms A and a, then five genotypic classes can be formed: AAAA (quadruplex), AAAa (triplex), AAaa (duplex), Aaaa (simplex), and aaaa (nulliplex) cyto >>> Table 3

autotetraploidy >>> autotetraploid autotroph >>> autotrophic autotrophic: cells or organisms that synthesize cell components from simple chemical substances phys autotropism: the ability of plants to self-regulate a stimulated crooking of an organ in a way that the previous shape is reestablished bot autumn wood >>> late wood auxin: a hormone that promotes longitudinal growth in the cell of higher plants; in combination with cytokinin, auxin is required for the sustained proliferation of many cultured plant tissues chem phys auxotroph(ic): fail to grow on a medium containing the minimum nutrients essential for the growth of the wild type phys availability: it describes the amount of a nutrient and/or water in fertilizer or the soil, respectively, that a plant can immediately absorb; it can be different from the actual amount of the nutrient present agr phys >>> available water capacity >>> available water available water: that part of the water in the soil that can be taken up by plant roots agr available water capacity: the weight percentage of water that a soil can store in a form available to plants; it is about equal to the moisture content at field capacity minus that at the wilting point agr avenacin >>> saponin average: a quantity or rating that represents or approximates an arithmetic mean stat avidin: a glycoprotein component of egg white that binds strongly to the vitamin biotin; proteins and nucleic acids can be linked to biotin (biotinylated) and the avidin-biotin reaction can then be used in a number of assay methods, such as antigen-antibody reactions or DNA hybridization (e.g., enzymes conjugated with avidin can be used to bind to biotinylated antibodies) chem cyto micr avirulence: the inability of a pathogen to infect phyt avirulent: a strain of a parasite unable to infect and cause disease in a host plant phyt

AVRDC: Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center awn: the bristlelike projection arising from the top of the glume and lemma (e.g., in barley, the top of the lemma in wheat and from the back of the lemma in oats) bot >>> Figure 34

awned >>> aristate axenic: a pure culture of one species; it implies that cultures are free of microorganisms biot >>> aseptic axil: the angle between the upper surface of a leaf and the stem that bears it bot axil placentation: the type of ovule attachment within a fruit in which the seeds are attached along the central axis at the junction of the septa bot axillary: in or related to the axis bot axillary bud: develops in the axil of a leaf; the presence of axillary buds distinguishes a leaf from a leaflet bot axillary tiller: a tiller may form a bud located at the coleoptilar node (coleoptilar tiller) and at each crown node (axillary tiller); the coleoptilar tiller can emerge at any time, independent of the number of leaves on the main stem; axillary tillers usually begin to emerge when the plant has three leaves; rarely are more than five axillary tillers formed on a cereal plant bot axis (of cereal plants): the stem or central column upon which other parts are borne; in general, the central part of a longitudinal support on which organs or parts are arranged bot

5-azacytidine: a drug that may activate the expression of rRNA genes by reduction of their methylation level biot azotobacter: bacteria living in soil and water that are able to bind and incorporate atmospheric nitrogen into their cells bio agr

B chromosome: any chromosome of a heterogeneous group of chromosomes present in several plant species, which differ in their morphology, numerical variation, meiotic pairing, and mitotic behavior from normal A chromosomes; they are also called supernumerary chromosomes, accessory chromosomes or extra chromosomes; a B chromosome derives from the A chromosome complement by aberrant division processes and subsequent modifications; up to 12 and more B chromosomes were observed in addition to the diploid A chromosome complement (e.g., in rye) cyto

B line: the fertile counterpart or maintainer line of an A line; does not have fertility restorer genes; used as the pollen parent to maintain the A line; used in hybrid seed production seed >>> Figure 2

BAC >>> bacterial artificial chromosomes

BAC vector: an Escherichia coli vector for DNA fragments; larger than cosmids; alternative to YAC vectors biot bacciferous: berry load-bearing, producing berries bot bacciform: berry-shaped bot

Bacillus thuringiensis: a bacterium that kills insects; a major component of the microbial pesticide industry and a subject in biotechnology >>> Bt back mutation: a reverse mutation in which a mutant gene reverts to the original standard form and/or wild type; it is rare to forward mutations, but often strongly selected for; the AMES test relies on back mutation for the detection of mutagens gene backcross: a cross of an F1 hybrid or heterozygote with an individual of genotype identical to that on one or the other of the two parental individuals; mat-ings involving a hybrid genotype are used in genetic analyses to determine linkage and crossing-over values meth >>> Figures 2, 31 >>> Tables 27, 35

backcross breeding: a system of breeding whereby recurrent backcrosses are made to one of the parents of a hybrid, accompanied by selection for a specific character(s) meth >>> Figure 31 >>> Tables 27, 35

backcross (donor) parent: that parent of a hybrid with which it is again crossed or with which it is repeatedly crossed; backcrosses may involve individuals of genotype identical to the parent rather than the parent itself meth >>> Figures 2, 31 >>> Tables 27, 35

backcross method >>> backcross breeding backcross-assisted selection (BCAS): a method that allows the selection of plants carrying a favorable recessive allele at each generation, limiting the need for a progeny test, which is common in traditional backcrossing; in cases where the traditional means of selection are limited by environmental conditions (e.g., the presence of an abiotic or abiotic stress such as drought) this selection strategy is superior to conventional ones; particularly in genetic transformation approaches, where the transgenes can be used as markers, BCAS may show a considerable advantage meth biot >>> Table 35

backcrossing >>> backcross backfill: filling in a planting hole around roots with a soil mix for better establishing the plant meth backhoe: a shovel mounted on the rear of a tractor, hydraulically operated to dig trenches or pits in soil agr backward selection: selection of parent plants based on results from a progeny test meth bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC): pieces of plant DNA that have been cloned inside living bacteria; they can be used as probes to detect complementary DNA sequences within large pieces of DNA via hybridization techniques, or for marker-assisted selection by faster selection of segregant-bearing genes for a particular trait and to develop future crop varieties faster biot bacterial diseases: diseases caused by specialized bacteria phyt >>> disease bactericidal: killing or hampering bacteria phyt bacteriocide: a chemical compound that kills bacteria phyt bacteriocin(s): bactericidal substances produced by certain strains of bacteria and active against some other strains of the same or closely related species phyt bacterioid: bacteria cells that are not normal shaped, usually found in root nodules of legumes agr bacteriology: the branch of science for bacteria phyt bacteriolysis: the lysis of bacterial cells, usually induced by antibodies formed by the host organism phyt bacteriophage: a virus that infects bacteria; consists of a polyhedral head containing DNA or RNA enclosed in a protein coat (e.g., the bacteriophages T4, M13, P1 and PS8 are used in genetic engineering) biot bacteriosis >>> bacterial diseases bacteriostatic: a chemical or physical agent that prevents multiplication of bacteria without killing them phyt bait: a material used to lure insects; it is often added to pesticides (e.g., against snails) meth

Bakanae disease: seedling disease of rice caused by fungus producing gib-berellins phyt >>> gibberellin balanced design: an experimental design in which all treatment combinations have the same number of observations stat balanced diallelic: the genotype involving a multiple allelic locus in an autotetraploid where two different alleles are represented an equal number of times gene balanced incomplete block design (BIB): a design in which one constant value for the residual variance of the difference between candidates for all pairs of candidates is indicated stat meth balanced lattice: a special group of balanced incomplete block; allows incomplete blocks to be combined into one or more separate complete replicates stat meth balanced lethal(s): recessive lethals at different loci, so that each homologous chromosome carries at least one lethal, and associated with inversions, so that no recombination occurs between the homologous chromosomes gene balanced polymorphism: a genetic polymorphism that is stable, and is maintained in a population by natural selection, because the heterozygotes for particular alleles have a higher adaptive fitness than either homozygote; it is referred to as overdominance, as opposed to underdominance, where the heterozygotes have a lower fitness, giving rise to unstable equilibrium gene balanced tertiary trisomic (BTT): a specific interchange trisomic spontaneously selected or experimentally designed in a way that it is heterozygous (Aaa), its trisomic progeny after selfing is genetically similar to the parent; the dominant allele is present on the translocated chromosome linked to the break point; BTTs were thought to be used for hybrid seed production in barley cyto meth >>> Figure 14

baler: a machine that picks up dry hay or straw after harvest and bundles it into big rectangular or round bales; the bales are tied together with baler twine agr ball metaphase: a form of mitosis with characteristically clumped chromosomes cyto balm >>> balsam balsam: a mixture of resins and ethereal oils of sticky consistency, secreted by some plants micr band: specific heterochromatic regions along a chromosome that can be stained by different banding methods cyto band application: the spreading of fertilizer or other chemicals over, or next to, each row of plants in a field, as opposed to broadcast application meth agr banding: a special staining technique for chromosomes, which results in a longitudinal differentiation (e.g., Giemsa staining, which is a complex of stains specific for the phosphate groups of DNA) cyto; in agriculture, placing fertilizer in continuous narrow bands and then covering it with soil agr; in horticulture, encircling part of a plant (e.g., a trunk) or a portion of a garden with some type of material that traps, kills, or keeps out pests (e.g., poisonous baits or copper stripping) hort meth >>> C banding >>> G banding banding pattern: the linear pattern of deeply stained bands and weakly staining interbands that results from more or less defined local differences in the degree of DNA compactation along the chromosome cyto band-pass: a microscopic filter that passes light of a certain restricted range of wavelength micr band-seeding: placing forage crop seed in rows directly above but not in contact with a band of fertilizer agr bar chart >>> bar diagram >>> histogram bar code: a pattern of light and dark lines on labels that can be read by a light pen for direct entry into a computer; used for tagging and labeling of plants, seed accessions, etc. meth bar diagram >>> histogram bar gene: a gene from Streptomyces hygroscopices that encodes the enzyme phosphinothricin acetyltransferase; it confers resistance to "Bialaphos" herbicide; used in genetic transformation studies as a marker gene for selection of successful transformants biot barb: a stiff bristle or hair terminating an awn or prickle bot barbate: having one or more groups of hairs; bearded bot bark: the outer skin of a tree trunk, outside the secondary, vascular cambium; it is composed of phloem tissue, which occurs as living inner and dead outer zones; the outer zone is penetrated by the cork layers formed from the cork cambia bot bark ringing: a method used for forcing fruit trees to flower; a complete ring is cut around the trunk below the lowest branch and another ring is cut right be low the first; the bark between the rings is removed; the scar should be covered with grafting wax meth hort barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV): it infects all cereal species but barley and oats are usually more severely affected than wheat; plants are most vulnerable to infection early in growth; infection results in stunting, discoloration and substantial yield loss; the virus is transmitted by several species of cereal aphids (mainly bird-cherry aphid, Rhopaosiphum padi, or grain aphid, Sitobion avenae) phyt >>> aphid vector barn: a building for storing straw, hay, grain, etc. agr barren glume >>> spikelet glume basal node: the node or joint at the base of the stem bot basal placentation: a type of free-central placentation in which the seeds are attached at the bottom of the central ovary axis bot basal rosette: in some plants, a cluster of leaves around the stem on or near the ground bot base: a compound that reacts with an acid to give water (and a salt); a base that dissolves in water to produce hydroxide ions is called an alkali chem base analogues: a purine or pyrimidine base that differs slightly in structure from normal base, but that because of its similarity to that base may act as a mutagen when incorporated into DNA (e.g., uracil, 5-bromouracil, 5-fluo-rouracil, 5-methylcytosin, 5-bromocytosin, hypoxanthin) chem gene base collection: a collection of germplasm that is kept for long-term, secure conservation and is not to be used as a routine distribution source; seeds are usually stored at subzero temperatures and low moisture content meth base pair (bp): the nitrogenous bases (adenine-thymine/uracil; guanine-cytosine) that pair in double-stranded DNA or RNA molecules; 1,000 bp = 1

kb gene base pairing: a complementary binding by means of hydrogen bonds of a purine to a pyrimidine base in nucleic acids gene base seed: particularly valuable seeds, usually derived from highly productive single plants (elite plants), which are used for seed production of commercially grown material; seed stock produced from breeder's seed by, or under the control of, an appropriate agricultural authority; the source of certified seed, either directly or as registered seed seed >>> Table 28

basic chromosome set: the standard chromosome number of a given species gene cyto basic form >>> primitive form basic number (of chromosomes): the haploid number of chromosomes in diploid ancestors of polyploids, represented by "x" gene cyto >>> basic chromosome set >>> genome basic seed >>> base seed >>> elite >>> super-elite basidiospore: from a basidium of Basidiomycetes-produced haploid spore that is formed after meiosis and exogenously laced up from a steringma bot phyt basidium: a stand-like cell, mostly club-shaped, from which exogenously laced up haploid spores after karyogamy bot bast: any of several strong, woody fibers, such as flax, hemp, ramie, or jute, obtained from phloem tissue bot >>> phloem bast plant: crop plants used for fiber production, such as flax or hemp agr bastard: the product of crossing two sperm cells of genetically different constitution gene >>> hybrid batch culture: a cell suspension grown in liquid medium of a set volume; inocula of successive subcultures are of similar size and cultures contain about the same cell mass at the end of each passage; cultures commonly exhibit five distinct phases per passage (a lag phase follows inoculation, then an exponential growth phase, a linear growth phase, a deceleration phase, and finally a stationary phase) biot batch drying: drying seeds in relatively small quantities held in a stationary position (as opposed to drying in a continuous moving line) meth seed

BC1, BC2, BC3, etc.: symbols indicating the first, second, third, etc. backcross generation meth

BCAS >>> backcross-assisted selection beak: the extension of the keel at the tip of the glume or lemma in wheat bot bean yellow dwarf virus (BYDV): a disease occurring in French bean, that can cause up to 90 percent losses in yield phyt beat up: to replace dead trees with new ones, especially during the early years of the establishment or reestablishment of a plantation fore

Becquerel (Bq): the SI unit of radioactivity; the unit is named after the discoverer of radioactivity, A. H. BEQUEREL phy bed: an area within a garden or lawn in which plants are grown meth bedding plant: a plant grown for its flowers or foliage that is suited by habit for growing in beds or masses hort beet: any of various biennial plants of the genus Beta, of the goosefoot family, especially B. vulgaris, having a fleshy red or white root and dark-green red-veined leaves; sugarbeet derived from B. vulgaris by selection for high sugar content bot hort behavior flexibility: all means of plant behavior permitting temporary adaptation to environmental conditions eco behavior genetics: a branch of genetics dealing with the inheritance of different types and/or forms of behavior gene

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