Aminoacetic acid glycine

aminoacyl-tRNA: a tRNA molecule covalently bound to an amino acid via an acyl bond between the carboxyl group of the amino acid and the 3'-OH of the tRNA chem aminoacyl-tRNA ligase: an enzyme that synthesizes a specific aminoacyl-tRNA molecule, employing a specific amino acid (e.g., alanine, its cognate tRNA and ATP to form (e.g., alanyl-tRNA alanine) chem phys biot aminopeptidase (Amp): an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of amino acids in a polypeptide chain by acting on the peptide bond adjacent to the essential free amino group chem phys amitosis: nuclear division by a process other than mitosis cyto amixis: reproduction in which the essential events of sexual reproduction are absent bot ammonia: compound that plays an important role in the natural nitrogen pathways chem agr ammonium fixation: in soil science, adsorption of ammonium ions by clay minerals rendering them insoluble and nonexchangeable agr ammonium phosphate: used as a mineral fertilizer chem agr ammonium sulfate: used as a mineral fertilizer with nitrogen content of about 21 percent chem agr amorph: a gene that is inactive—an amorphic gene; sometimes used to refer to something that lacks a discernable shape and can thus be described as "amorphous" gene bot amorphous >>> amorph amphibiotic: applied to an organism that can be either parasitic on or symbiotic with a particular host organism phyt amphibivalent: a ringlike interchange configuration of four chromosomes cyto amphicarpous: plants producing two classes of fruit that differ either in form or in time of ripening bot amphidiploid >>> allotetraploid >>> didiploid amphihaploid >>> allohaploid amphikaryon: the nucleus of the zygote produced after fertilization cyto amphimict: a species or individual that is reproduced by fusion of nuclei during sexual reproduction bot amphimictic >>> amphimict amphimixis >>> amphimict amphiplasty (nucleolar dominance): morphological changes of chromosomes after interspecific hybridization; occurs when the genomes of the pa rental species are spatially separated in the hybrid nucleus in a concentric fashion; the genome occupying the central position has an active NOR, while the NOR of the peripherical genome is suppressed (e.g., in hexaploid wheat, NORs on chromosome 1B and 6B function preferentially, although 1A and 5D also carry NORs; however, when the NOR on 1B is deleted, then the NORs on 5D and/or 1A are used to a greater extent) cyto amphiploid >>> alloploid amphiploidy >>> alloploidy; allopolyploidy amphitene >>> zygotene amphitoky: in some insects (e.g., butterfly), progeny of both sexes may develop from unfertilized eggs zoo amphitropous ovule: a type of ovule arrangement in which the ovule is slightly curved so the micropyle is near the funicular attachment bot ampicillin (beta-lactamase): an antibiotic substance; the resistance to amp-icillin is sometimes used as a screening marker in genetic experiments with bacteria (e.g., the cloning vector pBR322 carries a gene for ampicillin resistance; it interferes with bacterial cell wall synthesis; the bla gene is used as a selective marker in many vectors, including pBR322 and pUC18) biot amplexicaul: a leaf whose base wholly or partly surrounds the stem bot amplification: the intrachromosomal or extrachromosomal production of many DNA copies from a certain region of DNA; it can happen spontaneously or it can be done by molecular techniques (e.g., PCR) cyto amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs): polymorphic DNA fragments are amplified through PCR procedure; their differences are used for genotype identification and linkage studies biot amplify >>> amplification ampoule: a bottle with a bulbous body and narrow neck prep ampulliform: flasklike in form bot amygdaliform: almond shaped bot amygdalin >>> glucoside amylaceous >>> amyliferous amylase: a member of a group of enzymes that hydrolyze starch or glycogen by splitting of glucosidic bonds, giving rise to sugars, glucose, dextrin, or maltose; they occur particularly in germinating seeds in which the amylase mobilizes food reserves for the growth of the seedling chem phys amyliferous: containing starch bot amylopectin: larger, highly branched chains of glucose molecules phys amyloplast: a plastid that synthesizes and stores starch to the exclusion of other activities bot amylose: relatively short, unbranched chains of glucose molecules; a poly-saccharide consisting of linear chains of between 100 and 1,000 linked glucose molecules; a constituent of starch; in water, amylose reacts with iodine to give a characteristic blue color chem phys anabiose: the situation in the life cycle of some plants in which there is no visible metabolic activity (resting period) bot anabolic: pertaining to an enzymatic reaction leading to the synthesis of a more complex biological molecule from a less complex one chem phys anaerobe >>> anaerobic anaerobic: an organism able to grow without free oxygen phys anagenesis: a mode of evolution characterized by cumulative changes in an evolutionary lineage eco analysis of variance (ANOVA): a statistical method that allows the partitioning of the total variation observed in an experiment among several statistically independent possible causes of the variation; among such causes are treatment effects, grouping effects, and experimental errors; the statistical test of the hypothesis that the treatment had no effect is the F-test or variance-ratio test; if the ratio of the mean square for treatments to the mean square for error exceeds a certain constant that depends on the respective degrees of freedom of the two mean squares at a chosen significance level, then the treatments are inferred to have been effective stat anandrous: free of anthers (male sexual organs) bot anaphase (A): a stage that occurs once in mitosis and twice in meiosis and that involves the separation of chromosomal material to a given two sets of chromosomes, which will eventually form part of new cell nuclei; the separation is controlled by the spindle; in anaphase of mitosis and anaphase II of meiosis, the centromere becomes functionally double and daughter chromosomes separate from the equator, moving toward the opposite poles of the cell; the spindle then elongates and pushes the two groups of chromosomes further apart; in anaphase II of meiosis the centromere does not divide cyto anaphase movement: the movement of chromosomes and/or chromatids toward the cell poles during mitotic or meiotic anaphase cyto >>> Figure 15

anaphase separation: the disjunction of the chromatids of each chromosome during mitosis and anaphase II of meiosis or the separation of chromosomes in anaphase I of meiosis cyto anaphragmic: mutations that lead to increased enzyme activity by removal of inhibitors phys gene anatropous ovule: a type of ovule arrangement in which the ovule is completely inverted, having a long funiculus with the micropyle adjacent to the base of the funiculus bot ancestor: the form or stock from which an organism has descended or the actual or assumed earlier type from which a species or other taxon evolved gene ancestry: a series of ancestors; ancestral descent; lineage gene anchorage dependence: describes the normal eukaryotic cell's need for a surface to attach to in order to grow in culture biot ancient: dating from a remote period; very old; aged androdioecious: describes a species having male and hermaphroditic flowers on separate individuals bot androecious: applied to a plant that possesses only male flowers bot androecium: a collection of stamens that form the male reproductive organs of flowering plants bot androecy: applied to a plant that possesses only male flowers bot androgenesis: development of a haploid embryo from a male nucleus bot androgenetic embryo: an embryo that contains two paternally derived sets of chromosomes and no maternally derived chromosomes biot androgenous: producing only male offspring bot andromonoecious: a species having male and hermaphroditic flowers on the same individual bot andromonoecism: plants with staminate and perfect hermaphroditic flowers bot androphore: the stalk or column supporting the stamens of certain flowers; usually formed by a union of the filaments (e.g., in Leguminosae) bot androsome: any chromosome exclusively present in the nucleus of the male cyto anemochory: distribution of seeds by the wind bot anemophilous: windborne pollen bot >>> Table 35

anemophily: pollination of a flower in which the pollen is carried by the wind (e.g., in grasses) bot >>> anemophilous >>> Table 35

aneucentric: applied to an aberrant chromosome possessing more than one centromere cyto aneuhaploid: when the chromosome number deviates from the haploid standard chromosome number of the species or individual cyto aneuploid: a cell or organism whose nuclei possess a chromosome number that is greater or smaller by a certain number than the normal chromosome number of that species; an aneuploid results from nondisjunction of one or more pairs of homologous chromosomes cyto aneuploid reduction: reduction of the genetic variability by decreasing the chromosome number cyto aneuploidy >>> aneuploid aneusomatic: individuals whose cells exhibit variable numbers of chromosomes cyto aneusomic: individuals or cells that contain unequal sets of the individual chromosomes cyto angiocarpous: having a fruit enclosed within a distinct covering (e.g., a filbert within its husk) bot angiosperm: seeds formed within an ovary bot

32 Encyclopedic Dictionary of Plant Breeding and Related Subjects angiospermous >>> angiosperm angiosperms: any vascular plant of the phylum, having the seeds enclosed in a fruit, grain, pod, or capsule and comprising all flowering plants bot >>> Table 32

Angstrom (A): a unit of length equal to 10 -10 meter; formerly used to measure wavelengths and intermolecular distances but has now been replaced by the nanometer (1 A = 0.1 nanometer); the unit is named after Swedish pioneer of spectroscopy A. J. ANGSTROM (1814-1874)

angustifoliate: with small leaves bot anhydride: a compound formed by removing water from a more complex compound chem anion: an ion that carries a negative electrical charge chem anisogamete: a gamete that differs in size, appearance, structure, or sex chromosome content from the gamete of the opposite sex bot anisogamy: unequal gametes fusing during fertilization bot anisomeric: nonequivalent genes that interact to produce particular pheno-types gene anisoploid: an individual with an odd number of chromosome sets in somatic cells cyto anisoploid seeds: a mixture of seeds of different ploidy levels (e.g., in sugarbeet [2x, 3x, 4x]) seed cyto anisotrisomic: a mixture of seeds or individuals that are not only trisomic cyto anneal: in molecular genetics, heating that results in the separation of the individual strands of any double-stranded nucleic acid helix, and cooling that leads to the pairing of any molecules that have segments with complementary base pairs; synonymously used for hybridization biot annouline: the fluorescent protein pigment exudated by the roots of ryegrass seedlings; the fluorescent nature of this material is useful in distinguishing annual and perennial ryegrass seed annual: a plant that completes its life cycle within a single growing season bot >>> biennial >>> perennial annual ring: in woody plants, the layer of wood produced each year that can be seen when the wood is cut into a cross section; the number of rings equals the age of the tree fore annulus: applied to any of a number of ring-shaped nuclear pores bot anorthogenesis: adaptive changes of evolutionary significance based on preadaptation evol

ANOVA >>> analysis of variance

Antennaria type: mitotic diplospory where the megaspore mother cell does not enter meiosis but proceeds directly into the first mitosis; the megaspore mother cell thus functions as an unreduced gamete bot antephase >>> prophase anther: the terminal portion of a stamen of a flowering plant; the pollen sacs containing pollen are borne on the anther; the number of anthers in a flower varies from 3 to 10 among most species bot anther culture: culturing of anthers containing pollen or of single pollen grains; the method is used for the production of haploid plants, for the production of doubled haploids (which are homozygous) after spontaneous or induced rediploidization or for breeding on a lower ploidy level biot >>> microspore culture >>> Figures 17, 26 >>> Table 7

antheridium: the male sex organ or gametangium within which male gametes are formed bot anthesis: the time of flowering in a plant, the opening of a flower bud, or the time when the stigma is ready to receive the pollen bot anthocyan >>> anthocyanin anthocyanin: water-soluble, nitrogenous pigments that contribute to the autumnal colors of the leaves of temperate-climate plants; red- and purple-colored matter found in various parts of the plants (e.g., in the auricles, awns, nodes, and coleoptiles of many cereals) chem phys anthoxanthin: the yellow- or orange-colored matter of yellow flowers and fruits bot anthracnose: a general term for any of several plant diseases in which symptoms include the formation of dark and often sunken spots on leaves, fruits, etc. (e.g., caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianmum in dwarf bean, Elsinoe ampelina in grape, Kabtiella caulivora in clover, Gloeosporium ribis glossulariae in gooseberry, Colletotrichum linicolum in linseed, C. oligochaetum in cucumber, C. graminicolum in rye and maize, or C. orbi-culare in melons) phyt antibiosis: the phenomenon whereby a natural organic substance secreted by one organism has an injurious effect on normal growth and development of another organism when the two organisms are brought together eco antibiotic: a substance that is produced by some organisms; it may inhibit the growth of another organism or even kill it; several antibiotics are produced by fungi; they act against bacteria phys antibiotic resistance gene: a gene that encodes an enzyme that degrades or excretes an antibiotic, so conferring resistance gene phyt antibody: a protein, usually found in serum, whose presence can be shown by its specific reactivity with an antigen; it binds with high affinity to antigens and thereby destroys them; in molecular biology, it is used in Western blots; a normal immuneserum contains different antibodies, which recognize all the many different antigens an animal normally produces; monospecific antiserum is purified to exclusively contain antibodies that recognize epitopes of a single macromolecule; monocolonal antibodies contain only one particular type of antibody that is specific for a single epitope; they are produced by hybridoma cell cultures phys biot anticlinal: referring to a layer of cells running orthogonal to the surface of a plant part bot anticline >>> anticlinal anticodon: a triplet sequence of nucleotides in tRNA that during protein synthesis binds by base pairing to a complementary sequence, the codon, in mRNA attached to a ribosome gene antigen: a molecule, normally of a protein although sometimes of a poly-saccharide, usually found on the surface of a cell, whose shape causes the production in the invaded organism of antibodies that will bind specifically to the antigen phys biot

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