The autumn alternation

The summer colonisers produce 'autumn alternators' at the end of the summer, and these have the function of allo-infecting the winter host. At some stage of the winter, these autumn alternators travel to the winter host that can only be allo-infected. A vertical subsystem may occur in the winter host also, even if this host is an evergreen perennial. Such a winter pathosystem is discontinuous because the parasite is unable to auto-infect its winter host during the summer, provided that the parasitism of the previous winter stops completely once the spring alternators have departed.

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