Systems Levels

A pattern of patterns is usually called a systems level. For example, a book is a static system, which consists of subsystems called chapters. Collectively, these chapters constitute a systems level. Each chapter consists of subordinate patterns of patterns (or secondary subsystems) called paragraphs. And so on, downwards, through sentences, words, and letters. The book itself is part of a super-system called a library. Clearly, a book has many systems levels.

The importance of recognising systems levels is that they lead to the concepts of emergents, reductionism, and suboptimisation. It will transpire that these concepts are central to any analysis of twentieth century crop science.

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