Pairs of Contrasts

This chapter is intended to emphasise the complicated nature of both the pathosystem and the ecosystem. These are complex adaptive systems characterised by self-organisation among innumerable networks within networks. Pairs of contrasting phenomena seem to dominate pathosystem theory. Some of these contrasts are qualitative and are differences in kind, in which there are no intermediates, while others are quantitative and represent the two extremes of a continuous variation. Many of the pairs of contrasts reflect the difference between a wild ecosystem and an agro-ecosystem, or a wild pathosystem and a crop pathosystem.

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