Orchid Growing Training Course
Melt mealybugs from the stems of orchids and sensitive tropical houseplants with this cheap and easy spray. Bob Thompson, an orchid hobbyist who lives near Daytona Beach, Florida, says this formula will control mealybugs on any plant, including citrus and poinsettias. The soap kills some of the mealybugs right away as it penetrates their protective coating, Bob says. Survivors are then suffocated by the thin coating of corn oil. 'It's horribly effective, Bob reports. Within days, every mealybug is gone,
As you advance in gardening, you find that in certain branches of horticulture (like perennials, some trees and shrubs, and orchids), you're confronted with dreaded scientific names (usually Latin, sometimes Greek). People use such names in these plant categories for very legitimate reasons, and you can choose to follow the path to those reasons later. For now, I spare you that step by mostly using common names for the plants throughout this book. When I do provide the scientific name, I give common plant names first, followed by the botanical name.
At the end of a long drive, an ancient orchid cactus presides on a limestone bench. Just beyond, a gate opens to a stone-floored foyer and a stone wraparound seating area.There, beneath the wide branches of a native California oak, a banco offers a view of a full house of outdoor rooms a pergola-covered dining area, a swimming pool, and a casita outfitted with kitchen, lounge and bedroom. Datura and wisteria perfume the air. So inclusive is the space that the Siemons lived in the casita as their house neared completion. Above the house is another world, a woodland garden crisscrossed by a path whose end offers a breathtaking panorama of the canyons of the Santa Ynez Mountains beyond. Wanting the garden to naturalize under the canopy of its established native oaks, Barbara planted only what could thrive there on its own agapanthus, pittosporum, chocolate and peppermint scented geraniums, ornamental grasses and iris. At the top of the hillside, she nestled an orchid house moved from an...
Monocotyledonous growth forms. A Socratea exorrhiza, unbranched palm with prop roots. B Euterpe oleracea, basally branched palm. C Cordyline kaspar, richly branched tree with secondary thickening. D Abromeitiella sp., schematic section through a cushion. The oldest parts decaying, the younger shoots rooting in the organic matter. Inflorescences indicated as circles. E Coelogyne salmoni-color, epiphytic orchid with specialized storage axes. F Taeniophyllum sp., epiphytic orchid with much reduced shoots, assimilating roots (r), and a small inflorescence (in). G Lemna gibba, free-floating plant with much reduced vegetative shoot system. H Pandanus sp., richly branched shrub with strong stilt roots. I Zingiber zerumbet, vegetative leafy shoots strongly different from scale-leaved flowering shoots. J Monstera dubia, scale-leaved seedling axis growing skototropically along soil surface until reaching a trunk when climbing upwards, producing small shingle leaves and finally...
Rockwool slabs are a very successful way of growing which lend themselves to a modular system. It is widely used for a range of commercial crops, such as tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, melons, lettuce, carnations, roses, orchids and strawberries, in protected culture. It is not biodegradable so the vast quantity of rockwool now utilized has produced a serious disposal problem. The slabs can be used successfully several times, if sterilized on each occasion, but eventually they lose their structure. Tearing them up and incorporating them in composts or soils can deal with a limited amount, but far more can now be recycled in the production of new slabs.
Epiphytic orchid specimen Prepared slide of Elodca root cross scction Prepared slide of orchid root cross scction Radish seedlings Razor blades, single-edged Taproot example dandelion 6. Many tropical orchids are epiphytes, or aerial plants. These are nonparasitic plants that rest upon the branches of other plants. Picturc a gigantic tropical tree festooned with hundreds of orchids and vines. Observe the epiphytic orchid on display. Locatc the roots. Unlike the roots you may typically think of, these epiphytic orchids have aerial roots, roots growing not in the soil but out into the air. Noticc that the tips of the aerial roots are green. What is present that imparts this green color What FIGURE 4.4 ROOT ADAPTATIONS. (A) THE ANATOMY OF AN ELODEA ROOT SHOWS ADAPTATIONS TO AN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT. (3) CLOSE-UP OF VASCULAR CYLINDER OF ELODEA ROOT. (C) THE VASCULAR CYLINDER OF A MONOCOT ROOT TYPICALLY SURROUNDS A PITH. NOTE THE VELAMEN. A CHARACTERISTIC OF EPIPHYTIC ORCHID ROOTS. Obtain a...
Aggregates of phaneran-thous florets form conspicuous pseudanthic capitula in Aponogeton ranunculiflorus (Dahlgren et aL 1985), some Zingiberaceae Etlingera (Achasma) , entomophilous Cyperaceae (e.g., Dichromena), umbels in Cirrhopetalum, or geminate pseudanthia in Thalia. However, several groups of monocots bearing small, inconspicuous, and mostly greenish tepals (aphananthous flowers) are animal-pollinated as well (p. 45). They rely on chemical attraction alone, or their visual advertisement is taken over by adjacent, conspicuous extrafloral organs, mainly colored bracts such as the spathes of most members of Araceae, many palms, and the Cyclanthaceae. Also in phaneranthous flowers or inflorescences, visual advertisement may be reinforced by showy bracts, as in Taccaceae, in genera of the Amaryl-lidaceae (Haemanthus spp.), Commelinaceae (Cochliostema, Coleotrype), orchids, Zingiberales, and Bromeliaceae, or by sterile flowers as in Muscari and Oncidium...
The racemose inflorescence bears personate flowers with elongated spurs and ,i bilabiate corolla and calyx. (Photo 6-2) The throat of the corolla is usually blocked by a pubescent palate whose degree of exsertion is specific to the species. There are 2 curved stamens which may or may not be covered by the 2-lipped stigma. (Fig. 6-3) Flo we i color varies by species and includes shades of yellow, white, purple, blue and red. In some epiphytic species the corolla diameter can exceed 2 in. (5 cm) and strongly resembles orchid flowers, while in most species the corolla diameter ranges from 0.08 1 in. (0.2-2.5 cm). (Photos 6-3, 6-4)
Bearing these limitations in mind, it is fascinating to see what a great diversity of growth forms and special adaptations is to be found in monocotyledons. A selection is shown in Fig. 2. The most remarkable specialized forms include the epiphytic orchids and bromeliads, the submarine members of Alismatales and Najadales, the much-reduced Lemnaceae, and the mycotrophic Bur-manniales and Triuridales. In some climbing members of the araceous genera Monstera and Pothos, a peculiar skototropic growth (Strong and Ray 1975, Boyce and Poulsen 1994, Boyce and Nguyen Van Dzu 1995 Fig. 2J) helps the young plant to find a host tree. Among the rattan palms, the genus Calamus includes species with shoots more than 180 m long, the longest known in the plant kingdom (Dransfield 1978). Despite this great diversity, it is surprising that the monocotyledons contain only a very limited number of therophytes. They are mainly found in Poales and Cyperales elsewhere they are very scattered, e.g., in...
Pseudanthia Compositae Eriocaulaceae kettle traps Aristolochiaceae Araceae asymmetric flowers Phaseoleae Marantaceae pollinaria Asclepia-daceae Orchidaceae pollen threads Oenother-aceae Strelitziaceae enantiostyly Cassia Cyanel-la secondary pollen presentation Campanula Canna explosive pollen application MedicagoI Marantaceae sensitive movements aiding in pollen release SiyiWium Marantaceae lever mechanism of stamens SalvialRoscoea heterodistyly PrimulalNivenia heterotristyly OxalislEich-hornia gynostemium Stylidiaceae Orchidaceae stigmatic glue attaching pollen on vector Apo-cynaceae Orchidaceae flickering appendages as In contrast, the number of anthecological adaptations completely or almost confined to monocots is comparatively low. With few exceptions, evolution of hydrogamy is restricted to this group pollination by sexual deceit does not seem to occur elsewhere, and floral deception in general is much more widespread here than elsewhere. The luxuriance of flower modeling, color...
Monocotyledons include some important horticultural families, e.g. Arecaceae, the palms Musaceae, the bananas Cyperaceae, the sedges Juncaceae, the rushes Poaceae (formerly Graminae), the grasses Iridaceae, the irises Liliaceae, the lilies and the Orchidaceae, the orchids.
It is generally considered that 10-15 per cent AFP is needed for a wide range of plants. Azaleas and epiphytic orchids require 20 per cent or more, whereas others, including chrysanthemums, lilies and poinsettia, tolerate 5-10 per cent AFP and carnations, conifers, geraniums, ivies and roses can be grown at levels as low as 2 per cent.
Herbaceous or woody raphides often present silica bodies lacking (excl. part of orchids) stomata anomocytic (excl. Aloe, orchids pro parte, Ripogonum) vessels present in the roots and less frequently in stems and leaves perianth mostly peta-loid (scarious or differentiated in calyx and corolla) 3 carpels fertile, placentation mostly marginal endosperm development Helobial or Nuclear endosperm without or - before maturity - with little starch (with abundant starch in Velloziaceae and Acanthochlamydaceae) epicuticular wax often in parallel platelets ( Lower Asparagales) 2 Flower epigynous, not articulated from pedicel 3 Stamens and style fused into a gynostemium capsules septicidal and loculicidal at the same time perennial herbs, often epiphytic, frequently with hypogeal or epigeal storage organs flowers zygomorphic ovules bitegmic, tenuinucellate endosperm development Nuclear seeds minute, mycotropWc . ca. 900 20000, cosmopolitan Orchidaceae
The lack of a convincing dicot sister taxon to the monocotyledons makes outgroup comparison difficult in morphological analyses and presents problems in rooting and identification of basal monocotyledons. Although many authors previously considered Dioscoreales to be the basal monocot taxa on the basis of their dicotlike net-veined leaves and other characters (see below), it has been demonstrated that reticulate venation lias evolved several times in monocotyledons, probably in response to shady woodland under-,story habitats, for example in the orders Asparagales (e.g., Convallariaceae and Vanil-loideae of Orchidaceae), Liliales (e.g., Trilliaceae, Smilacaceae, and related taxa) and Dioscoreales
Some delight in a green, freshly cut lawn or an early spring blooming orchid in a sunny living-room window. Some like the fact that the garden adds value to their real estate. There are even those that turn their passion for gardening into a profession. There are quite a few options for the horticulturist, as described below.
It is emphasized that the development and maintenance of conservation areas requires continuous management and consistent effort to maintain the desired balance of species and required appearance of the area. As with gardens and orchards, any lapse in attention will result in invasion by unwanted weeds and trees. In a wider sense, the conservation movement is addressing itself to the loss of certain habitats and the consequent disappearance of endangered species such as orchids from their native areas. Horticulturists are involved indirectly because some of the peat used in growing media is taken from lowland bogs much valued for their rich variety of vegetation. Considerable efforts have been made to find alternatives to peat in horticulture (see p387) and protect the wetland habits of the British Isles.
The idea of growing a perfect plant has different meanings for different people. For instance, an orchid fanatic may define the perfect plant as being of a certain rare variety, color or symmetry. For a commercial tomato grower, the perfect plant may be a variety that grows fast, resists disease and yields tasty fruit with a long shelf life. The orchid grower isn't looking to produce orchids in the same fashion as the tomato grower. But in both instances, by applying the principles you will learn in this book, both can achieve unrivaled success by using hydroponics.
This pest, a distant relative of the aphid, spoils the appearance of glasshouse crops, particularly orchids, Coleus species, cacti and Solanum species. All of the stages except the egg suck phloem juices by means of a tubular mouthpart (stylet), and when this pest is present in dense masses it produces honey dew and may cause leaf drop (see Figure 14.11).
Two 1000W HPS lamps provide supplemental lighting for the hundreds of exotic orchids in this custom greenhouse. The lamps have integrated timers which turn on as the greenhouse falls into the shade cast by a nearby tree line. About a year after taking this photo, the author paid another visit and found two more lamps installed and nearly double the number of plants. I guess gardening kind of grows on you Two 1000W HPS lamps provide supplemental lighting for the hundreds of exotic orchids in this custom greenhouse. The lamps have integrated timers which turn on as the greenhouse falls into the shade cast by a nearby tree line. About a year after taking this photo, the author paid another visit and found two more lamps installed and nearly double the number of plants. I guess gardening kind of grows on you
In natural habitats, it is seen that a number of plant species (and associated animals) are grouped together, and that away from this habitat they are not commonly found. Two habitat examples can be given. In south-east Britain, in a low rainfall, chalk grassland habitat there will often be greater knapweed (Centaurea scabiosa), salad burnet (Poterium sanguisorba) and bee orchid (Ophrys apifera). In the very different high rainfall, acid bogs of northern Britain, cotton grass (Eriophorum vaginatum), bog myrtle (Myrtus gale) and sundew (Drosera anglica) are commonly found together. Other habitat species such as bluebell (in dense broadleaved woodland), bilberry (in dry acid moor), mossy saxifrage (in wet north-facing cliffs), broom (in dry acid soils) and water violet (in wet calcareous soils) can be mentioned. It should be noted that successful weeds such as chickweed are not habitat-restricted (see Chapter 13) in this way.
Like the pelargoniums (geraniums) fuchsias. the large-flowered calceolarias and thai most lovely of half-hardy annuals, schizanthus, (the Poor Man's Orchid or Butterfly Flower) arc coming into flower. Also coming into bloom now are such autumn-sown annuals as clarkias. godet-ias, stocks and salpiglossis.
CRYPTANTH USHS Another group of bromeliads well worth considering for the greenhouse is Crvp-tanihus, a genus of dwarf plants which will prosper even in adverse conditions given an orchid-type compost based on peat. To give of their best, though, they need warm, moist conditions. The rosettes of often wavy leaves have a starfish-like appearance and attractive colouring. Decorative Uses. A popular way to grow these plants is on pieces of bark. Moss is
Oedema is seen as raised corky spots on the undersurface of leaves. Species such as pelargonium (see Figure 15.23), rhododendrons, begonias, pansies, violets and some fleshy-leaved plants such as Peperomia are affected. Orchids can show oedema on their petals. Oedema occurs when the roots' ability to supply water exceeds the leaves' ability to release the water by transpiration. Conditions favouring oedema occur most commonly in late winter and early spring especially during extended periods of cool, cloudy weather. Warm, moist soil occurring alongside cool, moist air brings on the condition most severely. The symptoms are commonly seen in unheated greenhouses. The problem can be greatly reduced by glasshouse heating and automatic venting.
Tissue culture is a method used for vegetative propagation based on the phenomenon that any part of a plant from a single cell to a whole apical meristem can grow into a whole plant (see totipotency). The explant, the piece of the plant taken, is grown in a sterile artificial medium that supplies all vitamins, mineral and organic nutrients. The medium and explant are enclosed in a sterile jar or tube and subjected to precisely controlled environmental conditions. This method has advantages over conventional propagation techniques, since large numbers of propagules can be produced from one original plant. It has particular value with rare or novel plants. An added advantage is the reduced time taken for bulking up plant stocks. Some species that traditionally propagate only by seed, e.g. orchids and asparagus, can now be grown by this means.
Knowledge of the distribution and genetics of self-incompatibility is still too scanty to allow wide generalizations. Self-sterility is rare or absent in Araceae, Palmae, Alismatales, Bromeliaceae, Heliconiaceae, Marantaceae, and Juncaceae on the other hand, dichogamy (p. 41), herkogamy, or dicliny are common there. About 5 of orchid species are estimated to be self-sterile (East 1940). As is well known, interspecific fertilization barriers are weak in orchids, in part possibly due to the lack of a controlling endosperm. Intergeneric and even intertribal (usually sterile) crosses are possible but occur only rarely in nature, owing to the narrow, often species-bound pollinator specificity of this family (cf. van der Pijl and Dodson 1960). The Commelinaceae and grasses are largely self-incompatible, except for many cereals (Connor 1979 Richards 1986). Even monoecious sea-grasses are probably self-sterile (Pettitt et al. 1981). Within many families tested so far, both self-incompatible...
My second greenhouse is of cedar wood construction, measures 13 ft. by 8 ft. and is double glared. This double glazing reduces the cost of heating to lesi than 50 per cent, of that expended on the metal greenhouse. Because of the high cost of manufacturing these double-glazed greenhouses they are not. unfortunately, on sale any longer but the same effect can be achieved hv lining an ordinary greenhouse with thin polythene sheeting available for this purpose. This greenhouse has glass to the ground and one side is used for growing tomatoes during the summer months and chrysanthemums during the winter. Hippeastrums and orchids enjoy the shade under the tomatoes in the summer months, while on the opposite side of the house pelargoniums (geraniums). begonias, fuchsias, lmpaiiens
The monocot perigone, main site of advertisement in the zoophilous members, consists with few exceptions of two alternating trimerous tepal whorls. In the opinion of Leinfellner (1963), it is, at least in the Liliaceae, staminodial in origin and thus would represent true petals. The majority of morphological criteria, however, argue for an origin from bracts of vaginal character this hypothesis is advocated here. For the great similarity of certain tepals of the inner whorl with true petals (spatulate shape, fanlike innervation), another explanation must be found (Weber 1980). Thus, the monocot perigone differs from the typically heterochlamydeous perianth - which consists of phyllomes of both bracteal (calyx) and staminodial nature (petals) - in being composed of two homoeologous, oligomerous leaf whorls. While the perigone - when present - has maintained (or reacquired) its bracteose appearance (aphananthy) in the anemophilous families, in most zoophilous flowers both tepal whorls...
This species is the only orchid grown for purposes other than ornamental. It originated in Mexico and the vanilla is extracted by fermenting the unripe pods and infusing them in alcohol. The main producer is now the Malagasy Republic (Madagascar). The crop is propagated vegetatively and few clones are known to exist. There may be scope for selection by amateur breeders in the centre of origin. Variable ranking
Those who decide to specialise in cacti, rare succulents, or the wild species of orchids should be particularly vigilant about the sources of their plants and the need not to decimate their original habitat. Although the individual can do little to safeguard a threatened species, every person who unthinkingly buys plants collected in the wild is encouraging this destructive trade. Orchids are a specialisation that should be considered before the greenhouse is built, as one can greatly improve the chances of success by a suitable choice of structure. Adequate ridge ventilation, box ventilators low down and specially designed staging to aid humidity are also helpful, while a high degree of atmospheric humidity and proper shading are essentia . Orchids are very long-lived and extremely interesting plants worthy of study, I believe their greater appeal to men than to women is partly because men are less concerned with the general decorative effect in a greenhouse and more intrigued by the...
Adaptations to plant organs have enabled plants to compete and survive in their habitat. Plants adapted to dry areas (xerophytes), such as cacti, have leaves reduced to protective spines and stems capable of photosynthesis. Thorns, which are modified branches growing from axillary buds, also have a protective function, e.g. hawthorn (Crataegus). Prickles are specialized outgrowths of the stem epidermis, which not only protect but also assist the plant in scrambling over other vegetation, as in wild roses. Several species possess leaves modified specifically for climbing in the form of tendrils, as in many members of the Leguminosae family, and Clematis climb by means of a sensitive, elongated leaf stalk, which twists round their support. In runner beans, honeysuckle (Lonicera) and Wisteria, twining stems wind around other uprights for support. Others are able to climb with the help of adventitious roots such as ivies, and Virginia Creeper (Parthenocissus). Epiphytes are physically...
Midrib The main rib or longitudinal vein (an externally visible vascular bundle) of a leaf or leaflet. Milky latex White-colored sap of a plant. Monocotyledons One of two major divisions of the angiosperms (a group of plants characterized by having ovules borne in ovaries), bearing only one cotyledon or seed leaf, for example, the grasses, lilies, bromeliads, orchids, and palms. Native Having its origins in a particular geographic area, as in a plant native to the Western United States. Naturalized Thoroughly established in a particular geographic region, but originally coming from another geographic area.
Aeums (crolons) of any size or value in a cool greenhouse but these highly decorative foliage plants can be grown most successfully in a warm house. Other plants which can be grown well in the warm greenhouse are allamanda. the greenhouse climber with lovely yellow flowers, streptocarpus. and the trailing eolumnea which is ideal for a hanging basket. Exotic orchids such as cailleyas and paphio-pedilums. can be quite easily grown in a warm greenhouse, provided they are given the correct compost and sufficient moisture during their growing season.
This crested iris belongs to the groupof irises which have orchid-like flowers with cock's-comb crests instead of beards This species is hardy, with slender, dark green leaves, and 2 5-5cm (l-2in) wide, lavender-pink flowers, which appear during mid and late spring Height 20-25cm (8-10in) Spread 20-25cm (8-1 Oin) Cultivation Fertile, moisture-retentive lime-tree soil is essential, in a
Exploiting the potential of mycorrhizae, which appear to be associated with a high proportion of plants especially in less fertile soils. In this symbiotic relationship the fungus obtains its carbohydrate requirements from the plant. In turn, the plant gains greater access to nutrients in the soil, especially phosphates, through the increased surface area for absorption and because the fungus appears to utilize sources not available to higher plants. Most woodland trees have fungi covering their roots and penetrating the epidermis. Orchids and heathers have an even closer association in which the fungi invade the root and coil up within the cells. The association appears to be necessary for the successful development of the seedlings. Mycorrhizal plants generally appear to be
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