Vitex trifolia Linn

Family ► Verbenaceae.

Habitat ► Throughout India in tropical and subtropical regions.

Ayurvedic ► Sinduvaara, Nirgundi (white var.).

Siddha/Tamil ► Karu Nochi, Siru Nochi.

Folk ► Paani-Sambhaalu.

Action ► Leaves—febrifuge, antibacterial, anthelmintic, cytotoxic. Extract of the leaves showed inhibitory action against Mycobac-terium tuberculosis. Leaves used as poultice in rheumatism, inflammations and sprains. Root and flowers—febrifuge. Root—expectorant. Fruit—used in amenorrhoea.

Aerial parts gave friedelin, beta-sitosterol and itsbeta-D-glucoside, and a long chain hydrocarbon. The leaves gave the flavonoids—artemetin, lute-olin, orientin, casticin; and iridoid gly-cosides, aucubin and agnuside. The fruits contain an alkaloid, vitricin.

Vitrosin A and vitexicarpin, isolated from the plant, blocked spontaneous contraction of isolated guinea-pig trachea induced by histamine. (Planta Med, 2002, Nov., 68/11).

The leaves are reported to improve memory and favour hair growth. Leaf extract showed significant antitumour activity in the murine tumour system.

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