Family ► Verbenaceae.
Habitat ► Throughout India in tropical and subtropical regions.
Ayurvedic ► Sinduvaara, Nirgundi (white var.).
Siddha/Tamil ► Karu Nochi, Siru Nochi.
Folk ► Paani-Sambhaalu.
Action ► Leaves—febrifuge, antibacterial, anthelmintic, cytotoxic. Extract of the leaves showed inhibitory action against Mycobac-terium tuberculosis. Leaves used as poultice in rheumatism, inflammations and sprains. Root and flowers—febrifuge. Root—expectorant. Fruit—used in amenorrhoea.
Aerial parts gave friedelin, beta-sitosterol and itsbeta-D-glucoside, and a long chain hydrocarbon. The leaves gave the flavonoids—artemetin, lute-olin, orientin, casticin; and iridoid gly-cosides, aucubin and agnuside. The fruits contain an alkaloid, vitricin.
Vitrosin A and vitexicarpin, isolated from the plant, blocked spontaneous contraction of isolated guinea-pig trachea induced by histamine. (Planta Med, 2002, Nov., 68/11).
The leaves are reported to improve memory and favour hair growth. Leaf extract showed significant antitumour activity in the murine tumour system.
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