Unani Lokaat

Siddha ► Ilakotta, Nokkotta (Tamil).

Action ► Leaves—used in China and India for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and skin diseases. Fruit— sedative, antiemetic. Flower— expectorant.

The plant contains lipopolysaccha-rides (LPS), which exhibit antirheumatic activity. LPS is also found useful for treating diabetes mellitus and lowering high cholesterol level. The ethanolic extract of the leaves showed anti-inflammatory activity on carra-geenan-induced oedema in rats and significant hypoglycaemic effect in normal rabbits like the standard drug tolbutamide. The sesquiterpene gly-coside and polyhydroxylated triterpe-noids showed a marked inhibition of glycosuria in genetically diabetic mice; also reduced blood glucose level in nor-moglycaemic rats. The hypoglycaemic effect is mediated through the release of insulin from pancreatic beta cells.

The leaves gave ionone-derived gly-cosides and triterpenes. Maslinic and ursolic acids have also been isolated. Maslinic acid possesses significant anti-inflammatory activity. It also exhibits inhibitory effect on histamine-induced contraction in isolated ileum of guinea pig.

Hot aqueous extract of the leaves showed hepatoprotective activity experimentally.

The leaves yield an essential oil containing nerolidol (61-74%).

The presence of an antifungal compound, eriobofuran, is also reported.

The methanolic extract of the plant exhibits antioxidant and radical scavenging activity.

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