Action ► Anti-inflammatory, anticatarrhal, diuretic. Flowers and berries—used for common cold, influenza, nasal catarrh, sinusitis; as a gargle in sore throat. Inner bark—cathartic, hydragogue, emetic, diuretic. Infusion of bark and flowers—given in epilepsy; also used as a gentle circulatory stimulant, diaphoretic, expectant and anticatarrhal; locally in inflammations.
Key application ► In colds, also as a diaphoretic and anticatarrhal. (German Commission E, The British Herbal Compendium, WHO.)
The flowers contain triterpenes including ursolic acid; flavonoids (up to 3%) including rutin; phenolic acids; triterpenes; sterols; tannins; mucilage; volatile oil (up to 0.2%); leaves gave
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