Siddha/Tamil ► Naaval.
Action ► Fruit—stomachic, carminative, diuretic. Bark and seed— antidiarrhoeal. Seed—hypo-glycaemic. Leaf—antibacterial, antidysenteric.
Key application ► Bark—in nonspecific acute diarrhoea and in topical therapy for mild inflammation of the oral-pharyngeal mucosa; externally in mild, superficial inflammation of the skin. (German Commission E.) The seed has been included among unapproved herbs by German Commission E, as the blood sugar-lowering effect could not be established by several
Syzygium hemisphericum (Wt.) Alston researchers. Claimed applications mentioned in German Commission E monograph: in diabetes, also in combination preparations for atonic and spastic constipation, diseases of the pancreas, gastric and pancreatic complaints.
The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommends the bark in acute diarrhoea and haemorrhagic diseases; the seed in hyperglycaemia and polyuria.
The aqueous alcoholic extract of the bark contains bergenin, gallic acid and ethyl gallate.
The fruit contains anthocyanins and yielded citric, malic and gallic acids. Gallic acid and tannins account for as-tringency of the fruit. Malic acid is the major acid (0.59%) of the weight of fruit; a small quantity of oxalic acid is reported to be present. Glucose and fructose are principal sugars in the ripe fruit; surcose was not detected.
The seeds contain tannin (about 19%), ellagic acid, gallic acid (1-2%), beta-sitosterol, 0.05% essential oil; myricyl alcohol is present in the un-saponifiable matter.
The stem bark yielded friedelan-3-alpha-ol, kaempferol, quercetin, beta-sitosterol and its glycoside, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, gallic acid, friedelin and betulinic acid. It contained eugenin and epi-friedelanol. 10-12% tannins were reported.
The leaves contain aliphatic alcohols, sitosterols, betulinic acid and crategolic (maslinic) acid.
The flowers contain triterpenic acids—oleanolic acid and crategolic acid. The oleanolic acid is a strong protector against adriamycin-induced lipid peroxidation in liver and heart microsomes.
Phenols, including methylxantho-xylin and 2, 6-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-acetophene have been isolated from the plant (also from the seed).
Seeds in a dose of 10 mg/kg p.o. on normal and alloxanized rabbits exhibited hypoglycaemic activity up to 23 and 20% respectively. The chloroform fraction of seed extract exhibited potent anti-inflammatory action against both exudative and prolifer-ative and chronic phases of inflammation, besides exhibiting significant anti-arthritic, antipyretic and analgesic activities. Water extract exhibited antibacterial property against S. boydi and S. dysentrae in cases of dysentery and diarrhoea.
The bark extract is reported to have an effect on glycogenolysis and glyco-gen storage in animals.
Dosage ► Stem bark—10-20 g for decoction; dried seed—3-6 g powder. (API, Vol. II.)
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